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  • Author or Editor: Robert W. Soutas-Little x
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Abstract

Objective

Noninvasive, computer-assisted, three-dimensional kinematic gait analysis was used to describe lameness in a chronic model of cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs.

Design

Hind limb lameness was evaluated prior to and at 1, 3, and 6 months after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament.

Animals

Seven clinically normal large dogs.

Procedure

Dynamic flexion and extension angles and angular velocities were calculated for the coxofemoral, femorotibial, and tarsal joints. Distance and temporal variables were determined. Essential Fourier coefficients were used to develop mean flexion extension curves for all joints and to compare changes in movement that developed with CCLR over time.

Results

Each joint had a characteristic pattern of flexion and extension movement that changed with CCLR. The femorotibial joint angle was more flexed throughout stance and early swing phase of stride and failed to extend in late stance. Angular velocity of the femorotibial joint was damped throughout stance phase, with extension velocity almost negligible. The coxofemoral and tarsal joint angles, in contrast to the femorotibial joint angle, were extended more during stance phase. These changes were documented as differences noted in the essential Fourier coefficients. Stride length and frequency also varied significantly after CCLR.

Conclusions

Cranial cruciate ligament rupture affects movement of the coxofemoral and tarsal joints, as well as the femorotibial joint, in gait. A pattern of joint movement may be discerned in which the coxofemoral and tarsal joints compensate for the dysfunction of the femorotibial joint.

Clinical Relevance

Methods were developed that will improve objective evaluation of CCLR and its treatment in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:120-126)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To use computer-assisted kinematic analysis to describe the walk in healthy dogs and to adapt Fourier transformation for analysis of the data.

Design

Evaluation of normal walk in dogs, using kinematic and force plate analysis.

Sample Population

15 healthy large-breed dogs.

Procedure

Morphometric data were collected to describe the sample population. Temporal and distance variables were measured to describe the walk. Flexion and extension movements were described for the scapulohumeral, cubital, carpal, coxofemoral, femorotibial, and tarsal joints. Fourier transformation was adapted to facilitate analysis of the joint angle waveforms.

Results

Unique and complex patterns of flexion and extension movements were observed for each joint studied. The walk had consistency of movement in the sample population in temporal and distance variables and joint movements. Variances attributable to intra- and interdog differences were similar and 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the mean Fourier coefficients from which they were calculated for all 6 joints. The number of essential Fourier coefficients required to represent the joint angle waveforms was 3 for the coxofemoral joint, 5 each for the femorotibial, scapulohumeral, cubital, and carpal joints, and 6 for the tarsal joint.

Conclusions

Computer-assisted kinematic gait analysis proved to be a reliable and consistent technique for assessment of movement at the walk in dogs, and Fourier transformation was shown to be an effective tool for analysis of the kinematic data.

Clinical Relevance

The database derived from the normal sample population in this study can be used as a model of musculoskeletal function at the walk for future comparisons with disease and treatment.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:381-388)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A noninvasive computer-assisted kinematic gait analysis was used to describe flexion and extension movements of 6 joints in Greyhounds at a trot. Distinct patterns of movements were described for each joint studied. The coxofemoral and carpal joints were characterized by a single peak of maximal extension. The femorotibial, tarsal, scapulohumeral, and cubital joints had 2 peaks of maximal extension, with 1 peak preceding stance phase and a second peak within stance phase. A two-factor repeated-measures anova was used to determine the variance in measurement of joint angles in degrees that was attributable to trial repetitions and to differences between dogs. The coxofemoral, femorotibial, tarsal, scapulohumeral, and cubital joints had a mean variance attributable to trial repetition of 6.6 (range, 1.7 to 12.9), and a mean variance attributable to differences between dogs of 5.1 (range, 0.9 to 9.2). The carpus had more variance, with a mean variance attributable to trial repetition of 16.3 (range, 13.3 to 20.5), and that attributable to differences between dogs of 31.8 (range, 20.5 to 46.7). Kinematic gait analysis provided a reliable description of flexion and extension movements in Greyhounds with minimal variance attributable to trial repetitions and to differences between dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research