Objective—To determine the clinical and pathologic
findings in dogs with primary bicipital tenosynovitis.
Animals—19 dogs with 20 shoulder joints treated
surgically for bicipital tenosynovitis and 8 shoulder
joints from 4 clinically normal dogs.
Procedure—Histologic abnormalities of tendon
sheaths of the biceps brachii in affected dogs were
determined by use of comparison with findings in
clinically normal dogs. Specimens were graded for
inflammation, fibrosis, villous hypertrophy, vascular
prominence, and synovial cell proliferation.
Histopathologic results were statistically evaluated
for relationship with clinical findings and treatment
Results—Synovial villous hypertrophy and vascular
prominence were the most consistent histologic findings
in 16 and 14 of 20 affected joints, respectively.
Evidence of inflammation was lacking in 6 joints. Ten
joints had inflammatory cell infiltration of the tendon
sheath. Plasma cells and lymphocytes were the most
common infiltrates; however, the type and amount of
inflammatory cell infiltrate were variable. Fibrosis of
the tendon sheath was seen in 8 joints, and synovial
cell proliferation was seen in 11 joints. Other changes
included accumulation of hemosiderin, focal calcification,
osseous metaplasia, lysis of collagen, and fibrocartilaginous
metaplasia. No significant relationship
was detected between histopathologic findings and
clinical findings or treatment before surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Inflammation
was more variable than hypothesized and may not be
a consistent pathophysiologic feature of bicipital
tenosynovitis. In some dogs, this disease may be the
result of a degenerative process rather than an inflammatory
process. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:402–407)
Case Description—A 6-year-old German Shorthaired Pointer was evaluated for possible reconstruction of a mandibular defect resulting from gunshot trauma.
Clinical Findings—A 5-cm defect of the right mandibular body was evident. A segment of the mandibular body was removed 9 weeks earlier because of severe contamination and comminution associated with gunshot trauma. Subsequent right-sided mandibular drift resulted in malocclusion in which the left mandibular canine tooth caused trauma to mucosa of the hard palate medial to the left maxillary canine tooth. The right maxillary canine tooth caused trauma to gingiva lingual to the right mandibular canine tooth.
Treatment and Outcome—The right mandible was stabilized with a 2.0-mm maxillofacial miniplate positioned along the lateral alveolar margin and a 2.4-mm locking mandibular reconstruction plate placed along the ventrolateral mandible. An absorbable compressionresistant matrix containing collagen, hydroxyapatite, and tricalcium phosphate was soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2; 7.2 mL of a 0.5 mg/mL solution for a dose of 3.6 mg) and placed in the defect. By 4 weeks after surgery, an exuberant callus was evident at the site of the defect. By 7 months after surgery, the callus had remodeled, resulting in normal appearance, normal occlusion, and excellent function of the jaw.
Clinical Relevance—Mandibular defects resulting from gunshot trauma can be treated by removal of contaminated tissue and comminuted bone fragments, followed by staged reconstruction. The combination of rhBMP-2 and compression-resistant matrix was effective in a staged mandibular reconstruction in a dog with a severe traumatic mandibular defect.
Objective—To determine absolute and relative cell
counts for synovial fluid from grossly, radiographically,
and histologically normal shoulder and stifle joints in
Animals—52 cats scheduled to be euthanatized for
Procedure—Arthrocentesis of the shoulder and stifle
joints was performed bilaterally, and synovial fluid
was analyzed for absolute WBC count, WBC morphology,
and percentages of neutrophils and mononuclear
cells. Joints were examined grossly and radiographically,
and synovial membrane specimens
were submitted for histologic examination. Synovial
fluid samples that were contaminated with blood and
samples from joints with any gross, radiographic, or
histologic abnormalities were excluded.
Results—82 of the 208 synovial fluid samples were
excluded because abnormalities were identified during
physical examination; the volume of fluid obtained was
insufficient for analysis; there was evidence of blood
contamination; or the joint had gross, radiographic, or
histologic abnormalities. Median WBC count for the
remaining 126 synovial fluid samples was 91 cells/μL
(96.4% mononuclear cells and 3.6% neutrophils); WBC
count was not significantly different between left and
right joint samples or between shoulder and stifle joint
samples. Body weight was associated with synovial fluid
WBC count, with WBC count increasing as body weight
increased. Sixteen of the 52 (30%) cats had radiographic
evidence of osteoarthritis involving at least 1 joint.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that synovial fluid can be obtained reliably from
shoulder and stifle joints in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine incidence of and risk factors for postoperative pneumonia in dogs anesthetized for diagnosis or treatment of intervertebral disk disease (IVDD).
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—707 dogs that underwent general anesthesia for the diagnosis or treatment of IVDD between 1992 and 1996 or between 2002 and 2006.
Procedures—Postoperative pneumonia was diagnosed if compatible clinical signs (cough or hypoxemia) and radiographic abnormalities (alveolar infiltrates) developed within 48 hours after anesthesia. To identify risk factors for postoperative pneumonia, findings for dogs that developed postoperative pneumonia between 2002 and 2006 were compared with findings for a randomly selected control group of unaffected dogs from the same population.
Results—There were no significant differences in age, breed, body weight, sex, location of IVDD, or survival rate between the 2 time periods, but there were significant differences in the use of magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and hemilaminectomy and in the percentage of dogs that developed postoperative pneumonia in the later (4.6%) versus the earlier (0.6%) years. Significant risk factors for postoperative pneumonia included preanesthetic tetraparesis, cervical lesions, undergoing magnetic resonance imaging, undergoing > 1 anesthetic procedure, longer duration of anesthesia, and postanesthetic vomiting or regurgitation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that at this institution, the incidence of postoperative pneumonia in dogs anesthetized for diagnosis or treatment of IVDD had increased in recent years.