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  • Author or Editor: Robert S. Gilley x
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Objective—To determine the clinical and pathologic findings in dogs with primary bicipital tenosynovitis.

Animals—19 dogs with 20 shoulder joints treated surgically for bicipital tenosynovitis and 8 shoulder joints from 4 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure—Histologic abnormalities of tendon sheaths of the biceps brachii in affected dogs were determined by use of comparison with findings in clinically normal dogs. Specimens were graded for inflammation, fibrosis, villous hypertrophy, vascular prominence, and synovial cell proliferation. Histopathologic results were statistically evaluated for relationship with clinical findings and treatment before surgery.

Results—Synovial villous hypertrophy and vascular prominence were the most consistent histologic findings in 16 and 14 of 20 affected joints, respectively. Evidence of inflammation was lacking in 6 joints. Ten joints had inflammatory cell infiltration of the tendon sheath. Plasma cells and lymphocytes were the most common infiltrates; however, the type and amount of inflammatory cell infiltrate were variable. Fibrosis of the tendon sheath was seen in 8 joints, and synovial cell proliferation was seen in 11 joints. Other changes included accumulation of hemosiderin, focal calcification, osseous metaplasia, lysis of collagen, and fibrocartilaginous metaplasia. No significant relationship was detected between histopathologic findings and clinical findings or treatment before surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Inflammation was more variable than hypothesized and may not be a consistent pathophysiologic feature of bicipital tenosynovitis. In some dogs, this disease may be the result of a degenerative process rather than an inflammatory process. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:402–407)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine incidence of and risk factors for postoperative pneumonia in dogs anesthetized for diagnosis or treatment of intervertebral disk disease (IVDD).

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—707 dogs that underwent general anesthesia for the diagnosis or treatment of IVDD between 1992 and 1996 or between 2002 and 2006.

Procedures—Postoperative pneumonia was diagnosed if compatible clinical signs (cough or hypoxemia) and radiographic abnormalities (alveolar infiltrates) developed within 48 hours after anesthesia. To identify risk factors for postoperative pneumonia, findings for dogs that developed postoperative pneumonia between 2002 and 2006 were compared with findings for a randomly selected control group of unaffected dogs from the same population.

Results—There were no significant differences in age, breed, body weight, sex, location of IVDD, or survival rate between the 2 time periods, but there were significant differences in the use of magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and hemilaminectomy and in the percentage of dogs that developed postoperative pneumonia in the later (4.6%) versus the earlier (0.6%) years. Significant risk factors for postoperative pneumonia included preanesthetic tetraparesis, cervical lesions, undergoing magnetic resonance imaging, undergoing > 1 anesthetic procedure, longer duration of anesthesia, and postanesthetic vomiting or regurgitation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that at this institution, the incidence of postoperative pneumonia in dogs anesthetized for diagnosis or treatment of IVDD had increased in recent years.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 6-year-old German Shorthaired Pointer was evaluated for possible reconstruction of a mandibular defect resulting from gunshot trauma.

Clinical Findings—A 5-cm defect of the right mandibular body was evident. A segment of the mandibular body was removed 9 weeks earlier because of severe contamination and comminution associated with gunshot trauma. Subsequent right-sided mandibular drift resulted in malocclusion in which the left mandibular canine tooth caused trauma to mucosa of the hard palate medial to the left maxillary canine tooth. The right maxillary canine tooth caused trauma to gingiva lingual to the right mandibular canine tooth.

Treatment and Outcome—The right mandible was stabilized with a 2.0-mm maxillofacial miniplate positioned along the lateral alveolar margin and a 2.4-mm locking mandibular reconstruction plate placed along the ventrolateral mandible. An absorbable compressionresistant matrix containing collagen, hydroxyapatite, and tricalcium phosphate was soaked in recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2; 7.2 mL of a 0.5 mg/mL solution for a dose of 3.6 mg) and placed in the defect. By 4 weeks after surgery, an exuberant callus was evident at the site of the defect. By 7 months after surgery, the callus had remodeled, resulting in normal appearance, normal occlusion, and excellent function of the jaw.

Clinical Relevance—Mandibular defects resulting from gunshot trauma can be treated by removal of contaminated tissue and comminuted bone fragments, followed by staged reconstruction. The combination of rhBMP-2 and compression-resistant matrix was effective in a staged mandibular reconstruction in a dog with a severe traumatic mandibular defect.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine absolute and relative cell counts for synovial fluid from grossly, radiographically, and histologically normal shoulder and stifle joints in healthy cats.

Design—Clinical study.

Animals—52 cats scheduled to be euthanatized for unrelated reasons.

Procedure—Arthrocentesis of the shoulder and stifle joints was performed bilaterally, and synovial fluid was analyzed for absolute WBC count, WBC morphology, and percentages of neutrophils and mononuclear cells. Joints were examined grossly and radiographically, and synovial membrane specimens were submitted for histologic examination. Synovial fluid samples that were contaminated with blood and samples from joints with any gross, radiographic, or histologic abnormalities were excluded.

Results—82 of the 208 synovial fluid samples were excluded because abnormalities were identified during physical examination; the volume of fluid obtained was insufficient for analysis; there was evidence of blood contamination; or the joint had gross, radiographic, or histologic abnormalities. Median WBC count for the remaining 126 synovial fluid samples was 91 cells/μL (96.4% mononuclear cells and 3.6% neutrophils); WBC count was not significantly different between left and right joint samples or between shoulder and stifle joint samples. Body weight was associated with synovial fluid WBC count, with WBC count increasing as body weight increased. Sixteen of the 52 (30%) cats had radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis involving at least 1 joint.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that synovial fluid can be obtained reliably from shoulder and stifle joints in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1866–1870)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association