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  • Author or Editor: Robert P. Bill x
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Abstract

Objective—To develop a method for continuous infusion of gentamicin into the tarsocrural joint of horses, to determine pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in synovial fluid of the tarsocrural joint during continuous infusion, and to evaluate effects of continuous infusion of gentamicin on characteristics of the synovial fluid.

Animals—12 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—An infusion catheter consisting of flow control tubing connected to a balloon infuser was used. Gentamicin solution (100 mg/ml) was infused in the right tarsocrural joint and balanced electrolyte solution was infused in the left tarsocrural joint for 5 days. Synovial fluid and serum gentamicin concentrations were measured by use of a fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

Results—17 of the 24 (71%) infusion catheters initially placed functioned without complications for the entire 5-day infusion period. Median gentamicin concentration in synovial fluid from treated joints during the 5-day infusion period ranged from 287.5 to 982 μg/ml. Median serum gentamicin concentration during this period ranged from 2.31 to 2.59 μg/ml. Mean (± SD) elimination half-life and total clearance of gentamicin from the synovial fluid were 6.25 ± 1.01 hours and 1.52 ± 0.96 ml/min, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An infusion catheter can be used for continuous infusion of gentamicin into the tarsocrural joints of horses for up to 5 days. At a gentamicin dosage of 0.17 ± 0.02 mg/kg/h, continuous intra-articular infusion results in synovial fluid gentamicin concentrations greater than 100 times the minimal inhibitory concentration reported for common equine pathogens. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:407–412)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of a continuous intra-articular infusion of gentamicin on the synovial membrane and articular cartilage in the tarsocrural joint of horses.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—A balloon infusion system attached to a catheter placed in the plantarolateral pouch of both tarsocrural joints in each horse was used for continuous gentamicin solution (GM) or balanced electrolyte solution (BES) delivery for 5 days. Cartilage and synovial membrane specimens were collected on day 5 from 3 horses and on day 14 from the remaining 3 horses. Both infused joints from each horse were assessed, using gross evaluation and histologic scoring systems.

Results—Significant differences in the histologic scores of synovial membrane specimens between the GM- and BES-treated joints at either 5 or 14 days were not observed. Safranin-O-fast green staining scores were similar between cartilage specimens from GM- and BES-treated joints. Although the synovial membrane histologic scores and safranin-O-fast green staining scores improved from day 5 to 14, the changes in scores were not significant. Loss of synovial intimal cells from villi was found more commonly in sections of synovial membrane from GM-treated joints, compared with BES-treated joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Continuous infusion of GM into the tarsocrural joint of horses does not have significant effects on histologic scores of articular cartilage or synovial membrane, compared with those infused with BES. Continuous infusion of GM into the tarsocrural joint of horses for 5 days is an acceptable method for the treatment of septic arthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:683–687)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine efficacy of a modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1a and 2a against fetal infection in heifers exposed to cattle persistently infected (PI) with BVDV subtype 1 b.

Animals—50 heifers and their fetuses.

Procedures—Susceptible heifers received a placebo vaccine administered IM or a vaccine containing MLV strains of BVDV1a and BVDV2a administered IM or SC. On day 124 (64 to 89 days of gestation), 50 pregnant heifers (20 vaccinated SC, 20 vaccinated IM, and 10 control heifers) were challenge exposed to 8 PI cattle. On days 207 to 209, fetuses were recovered from heifers and used for testing.

Results—2 control heifers aborted following challenge exposure; both fetuses were unavailable for testing. Eleven fetuses (8 control heifers and 1 IM and 2 SC vaccinates) were positive for BVDV via virus isolation (VI) and for BVDV antigen via immunohistochemical analysis in multiple tissues. Two additional fetuses from IM vaccinates were considered exposed to BVDV (one was seropositive for BVDV and the second was positive via VI in fetal tissues). A third fetus in the SC vaccinates was positive for BVDV via VI from serum alone. Vaccination against BVDV provided fetal protection in IM vaccinated (17/20) and SC vaccinated (17/20) heifers, but all control heifers (10/10) were considered infected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—1 dose of a BVDV1a and 2a MLV vaccine administered SC or IM prior to breeding helped protect against fetal infection in pregnant heifers exposed to cattle PI with BVDV1b.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research