To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcomes for cattle with complete traumatic exungulation.
Record databases of 2 teaching hospitals were searched to identify cattle treated for traumatic exungulation between January 1993 and December 2018. Information about signalment, clinical signs and findings, treatment, and outcome was extracted from the records or obtained by telephone communication with the owner.
Records for 5 bulls, 4 heifers, and 1 cow with a median age of 2 years (range, 1 day to 10 years) and weight of 379.1 kg (range, 30 to 909.1 kg) were reviewed. Duration of clinical signs ranged from ≤ 24 hours to 3.5 days. Five of 7 animals had a lameness score > 3/5. Complete exungulation occurred in 6 medial digits (3 hind limbs and 3 forelimbs) and 5 lateral digits (1 hind limb and 4 forelimbs); 1 calf had complete exungulation of both digits of a forelimb. Treatments included bandaging (n = 9), antimicrobials (9), anti-inflammatories (8), hoof block application to the adjacent digit (7), regional anesthesia (6), cast application (4), curettage of the third phalanx (3), regional antimicrobial perfusion (1), and local application of antimicrobial-impregnated beads (1). All 7 cattle with long-term (≥ 9 months) information available returned to their intended function; 6 had no residual lameness, and 3 required regular corrective trimming of the affected digit.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested the prognosis for long-term survival and return to intended function is fair to good for cattle with complete exungulation.
To characterize clinical findings and outcomes for cattle with nonpathological phalangeal fractures.
17 cattle with nonpathological phalangeal fractures.
Medical records of a teaching hospital were reviewed to identify cattle treated for nonpathological phalangeal fracture between May 2004 and May 2020. Information extracted from the records of study-eligible animals included signalment, history, clinical and diagnostic imaging findings, treatment, and survival to hospital discharge. Long-term outcome was assessed by telephone communication with owners.
9 bulls and 8 heifers or cows (age range, 1 to 7 years) of various breeds and uses were evaluated. Five of the 9 bulls were bucking stock, which were overrepresented in the study population. Seven animals had 8 distal phalanx fractures; 10 animals had 11 proximal phalanx fractures. Eight animals were treated by application of a hoof block on the unaffected adjacent digit, 7 animals were treated with a distal limb (n = 6) or transfixation pin (1) cast in addition to a hoof block, 1 animal was treated with a hoof trim to elevate and alleviate weight bearing on the affected digit, and 1 animal was euthanized immediately after diagnosis. Sixteen animals survived to hospital discharge. Follow-up was obtained for 12 animals, of which 9 returned to functionable use and 3 were culled.
Results suggested cattle with a nonpathological phalangeal fracture have a favorable prognosis for return to function following application of a hoof block to the unaffected adjacent digit with or without a distal limb cast.
PROCEDURES Three 5F angiographic catheters of the same length (100 cm) and diameter (0.17 cm) but differing in curvature at the tip were labeled A (straight tip), B (tip bent in 1 place), and C (tip bent in 2 places). During a single anesthetic episode, attempts were made to blindly pass each catheter into the urinary bladder of each goat. Order of catheters used was randomized, and the veterinarian passing the catheter was blinded as to catheter identity. The total number of attempts at catheter passage and the total number of successful attempts were recorded.
RESULTS Catheter A was unsuccessfully passed in all 12 goats, catheter B was successfully passed in 8 goats, and catheter C was successfully passed in 4 goats. The success rate for catheter B was significantly greater than that for catheter A; however, no significant difference was identified between catheters B and C or catheters A and C.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE 2 angiographic catheters were identified that could be successfully, blindly advanced in a retrograde direction into the urinary bladder of healthy sexually intact male goats. Such catheters may be useful for determining urethral patency, emptying the urinary bladder, and instilling chemolysing agents in goats with clinical obstructive urolithiasis.
Objective—To determine correlations between dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) and urine pH, urine specific gravity, and blood pH in goats.
Animals—24 crossbred goat wethers. Procedures—Goats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 DCAD groups (−150, −75, 0, or +75 mEq/kg of feed) and fed pelleted feed and ground hay for 7 days. The diet was then supplemented with ammonium chloride to achieve the assigned DCAD of each group for 7 days. Urine was obtained for pH and specific gravity measurements at hours −3 to −1, 1 to 3, 5 to 7, 9 to 11, and 13 to 15 relative to the morning feeding. Blood pH was determined on alternate days of the study period.
Results—Goats in the −150 and −75 mEq/kg groups had a urine pH of 6.0 to 6.5 two days after initiation of administration of ammonium chloride, and urine pH decreased to < 6.0 by day 7. Goats in the 0 mEq/kg group had a urine pH from 6.0 to 6.5 on day 5, whereas urine pH in goats in the +75 mEq/kg group remained > 6.5 throughout the trial. Urine specific gravity differed only between the −150 mEq/kg and the −75 mEq/kg groups. Blood pH in the −150 mEq/kg group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Goats in the 0 mEq/kg DCAD group had a urine pH of 6.0 to 6.5 five days after intitiation of feeding the diet, and that pH was maintained through day 7, without significant reduction in blood pH. This may serve as a target for diet formulation for the prevention of urolithiasis.
To evaluate potential prognostic indicators for does with pregnancy toxemia (PT) and their offspring.
Retrospective cohort study.
Medical records were searched to identify does with PT. Signalment, history, clinical signs, examination findings, treatments, number of offspring present, and duration of hospitalization for does as well as outcome (death vs survival to hospital discharge) for does and their kids were recorded. Variables of interest were examined for association with outcome by contingency table analyses.
Boer goats were overrepresented, compared with the general population of goats for the facility in the last year of the study. Most (15/36) does had appropriate body condition scores. All pregnancies involved twins (11/56), triplets (37), or quadruplets (7). Neutrophilia (26/26) and hyperglycemia (32/40) were common in does. Most (39/56) does survived to hospital discharge. Does with high BUN concentration and those with serum bicarbonate concentration < 15 mEq/L were more likely to die than does without these findings. Forty-nine does survived to delivery of offspring; survival to discharge for these does was positively associated with outcome of their offspring. Among offspring of dams that survived to their delivery, twins had a higher survival rate than quadruplets. Death was more likely for offspring delivered by cesarean section than for those delivered vaginally.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested Boers were more likely to develop PT than goats of other breeds in the population examined at the study hospital. In contrast with other studies, hyperglycemia was common in affected does. Further research is needed to confirm associations with outcome identified in this study.
Objective—To define the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in synovial fluid (SYNF) and serum from central venous (CV) and digital venous (DV) blood samples following regional IV perfusion (RIVP) of the distal portion of the hind limb in cows.
Animals—6 healthy adult cows.
Procedures—In each cow, IV catheters were placed in the dorsal common digital vein (DCDV) and the plantar vein of the lateral digit, and an indwelling catheter was placed in the metatarsophalangeal joint of the left hind limb. A pneumatic tourniquet was applied to the midmetatarsal region. Florfenicol (2.2 mg/kg) was administered into the DCDV. Samples of DV blood, SYNF, and CV (jugular) blood were collected after 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 hours, and the tourniquet was removed; additional samples were collected at intervals for 24 hours after infusion. Florfenicol analysis was performed via high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results—In DV blood, CV blood, and SYNF, mean ± SD maximum florfenicol concentration was 714.79 ± 301.93 μg/mL, 5.90 ± 1.37 μg/mL, and 39.19 ± 29.42 μg/mL, respectively; area under the concentration versus time curve was 488.14 ± 272.53 h•μg•mL−1, 23.10 ± 6.91 h•μg•mL−1, and 113.82 ± 54.71 h•μg•mL−1, respectively; and half-life was 4.09 ± 1.93 hours, 4.77 ± 0.67 hours, and 3.81 ± 0.81 hours, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Following RIVP, high florfenicol concentrations were achieved in DV blood and SYNF, whereas the CV blood concentration remained low. In cattle, RIVP of florfenicol may be useful in the treatment of infectious processes involving the distal portion of limbs.
Objective—To evaluate whether pedal bacteremia develops following regional IV perfusion (RIVP) of a 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution in cattle with deep digital sepsis (DDS) and to determine which bacterial pathogens are most commonly isolated from the pedal circulation.
Design—Prospective observational cohort study.
Animals—9 adult cattle with DDS in 10 limbs and 10 healthy adult cattle with no evidence of lameness or digital infection.
Procedures—Blood samples were obtained aseptically from the dorsal common digital vein immediately following tourniquet application and 30 to 60 minutes after aseptic RIVP with a 2% lidocaine solution. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed on all samples collected. For cattle with DDS, clinical examination with or without debridement of digital lesions was performed after RIVP.
Results—Bacteria were isolated from pedal blood prior to RIVP in 1 cow with DDS and after RIVP and examination with or without debridement in that cow and 4 additional cattle with DDS. Bacteria were not isolated from any blood sample obtained from the healthy cattle. Of the 8 bacterial isolates identified, 5 were gram-positive facultative anaerobes. Cattle with DDS were significantly more likely to develop bacteremia in the pedal circulation than were healthy cattle following RIVP.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that bacteremia may be present in the pedal circulation before and following RIVP and examination with or without debridement in cattle with DDS. Thus, systemic or local antimicrobial treatment might be warranted prior to or concurrently with RIVP in cattle with DDS.