Objective—To identify potential risk factors for
embryonic loss before 35 to 42 days of gestation in
Design—Prospective observational study.
Procedure—Body condition score was determined at
the time of artificial insemination (AI; day 0) and on
days 20, 23, and 27 and between days 35 and 41;
serum progesterone concentration was measured on
days 0; 20 or 21; and 23, 24, or 25. Cows were excluded
from analyses if day 0 serum progesterone concentration
was ≥ 1.0 ng/mL and classified as pregnant
on day 23 if serum progesterone was > 1.5 ng/mL on
day 20 or 21 and day 23, 24, or 25. Cows were examined
via transrectal ultrasonography on day 27 or 28
and rectally palpated for pregnancy on days 35 to 41.
Results—39% of cows that were pregnant on day 23
lost their embryo by day 27, and 18% of cows that
were pregnant on day 27 or 28 were not pregnant on
days 35 to 41. Breeding a pregnant cow posed the
greatest risk for embryonic loss at both time periods.
Mean serum progesterone concentrations on day 21
or 22 and day 23, 24, or 25 were lowest for cows that
lost an embryo between days 24 and 28. Cows with
a linear somatic cell count score > 4.5 before AI were
twice as likely to lose the embryo by 35 to 41 days,
compared with cows with a score < 4.5.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that embryonic loss could be reduced by more
accurate estrus detection, reducing mastitis, and
strategies to improve progesterone concentration after
breeding. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1112–1118)
A 3-year-old 5-kg sexually intact female silvery langur housed in a single-species group at a zoological institution was presented because of acute trauma to the left forelimb.
Radiography of the left forelimb revealed a type II Monteggia fracture (proximal ulnar fracture with cranial displacement and caudal luxation of the radial head). During surgery, disruption of the annular ligament and rupture of the lateral collateral ligament were noted.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
The langur underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the ulnar fracture and placement of a radioulnar positional screw, a prosthetic lateral collateral ligament, and a temporary hinged type 1A external skeletal fixator. The langur was returned to group housing, underwent behavioral training, and was periodically anesthetized for physical therapy sessions to improve range of motion of the left elbow joint. The external skeletal fixator was removed 4 weeks after surgery, and the radioulnar positional screw was removed 6 weeks after surgery. Three months after surgery, the range of motion of the langur’s left elbow joint was considered normal, and the animal returned to normal activity.
For the captive silvery langur of the present report, surgical stabilization and postoperative management of a type II Monteggia fracture of the left forelimb were successful with recovery of elbow joint function. These techniques may be applied to other captive nonhuman primates, including those that brachiate or are members of social species that must be housed with conspecifics in the postoperative period to maintain group dynamics.
Objective—To assess the effects of ketamine hydrochloride, propofol, or compounded thiopental sodium administration on intraocular pressure (IOP) and qualities of induction of and recovery from anesthesia in horses.
Animals—6 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—Horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg), and anesthesia was induced with guaifenesin followed by ketamine (2 mg/kg), propofol (3 mg/kg), or thiopental (4 mg/kg) in a crossover study with ≥ 1 week between treatments. For each horse, IOP in the right eye was measured with a handheld applanation tonometer before and after xylazine administration, at the time of recumbency, and every 3 minutes after induction of anesthesia until spontaneous movement was observed. Cardiorespiratory responses and venous blood measurements were recorded during anesthesia. Induction of and recovery from anesthesia were subjectively evaluated by investigators who were unaware of the anesthetic treatment of each horse. Data were analyzed via a repeated-measures ANOVA with Holm-Ŝidák post hoc comparisons.
Results—Compared with findings after xylazine administration (mean ± SD, 17 ± 3 mm Hg), thiopental decreased IOP by 4 ± 23%, whereas propofol and ketamine increased IOP by 8 ± 11% and 37 ± 16%, respectively. Compared with the effects of ketamine, propofol and thiopental resulted in significantly lower IOP at the time of recumbency and higher heart rates at 3 minutes after induction of anesthesia. No other significant differences among treatments were found.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings support the use of thiopental or propofol in preference to ketamine for horses in which increases in IOP should be minimized.
To compare image quality and acquisition time of corneal and retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) under 3 different sedation-anesthesia conditions in horses.
6 middle-aged geldings free of ocular disease.
1 randomly selected eye of each horse was evaluated via SD-OCT under the following 3 conditions: standing sedation without retrobulbar anesthetic block (RB), standing sedation with RB, and general anesthesia with RB. Five regions of interest were evaluated in the cornea (axial and 12, 3, 6, and 9 o’clock positions) and fundus (optic nerve head). Three diagnostic scans of predetermined quality were obtained per anatomical region. Image acquisition times and total scans per site were recorded. Corneal and retinal SD-OCT image quality was graded on a subjective scale from 0 (nondiagnostic) to 4 (excellent).
Mean values for the standing sedation without RB, standing sedation with RB, and general anesthesia conditions were 24, 23, and 17, respectively, for total cornea scan attempts; 23, 19, and 19 for total retina-scan attempts; 14.6, 13.2, and 9.2 minutes for total cornea scan time; 19.1, 9.2, and 13.0 for total retina scan time; 2.0, 2.3, and 2.5 for cornea grade; and 2.7, 2.9, and 2.5 for retina grade.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The RB facilitated globe akinesia and improved the percentage of scans in frame and region of interest accuracy for retinal imaging via OCT in horses. Retrobulbar blocks improved clinical image acquisition while minimizing motion artifact.
Objective—To determine the effects of treatment
with and without adjuvant radiation therapy on recurrence
of ocular and adnexal squamous cell carcinoma
(SCC) at specific anatomic locations in horses.
Procedures—Medical records of horses with histologically
confirmed ocular and adnexal SCC evaluated
from 1985 to 2002 were reviewed. Sex, breed, age,
type of treatment, location, and recurrence of SCC
were recorded. Two treatment groups determined by
recurrence of SCCs treated with and without adjuvant
radiation therapy were established.
Results—The anatomic site with the highest recurrence
rate was the limbus (junction of the cornea and
sclera) or bulbar conjunctiva (47.7%), independent of
treatment group. There was a significant difference in
recurrence rates of ocular and adnexal SCCs between
the 2 treatment groups, independent of anatomic location.
Recurrence rates of SCCs treated with and without
adjuvant radiation therapy were 11.9% and 44.1%,
respectively. Recurrence rates for SCCs of the eyelid,
limbus or bulbar conjunctiva, and cornea treated with
adjuvant radiation therapy were significantly different
from those for SCCs treated without adjuvant radiation
therapy. The most frequently represented anatomic
site for ocular and adnexal SCCs was the eyelid
(28.7%). Coat color, breed, and the interaction of age
and breed had a significant effect on tumor recurrence
regardless of treatment type and anatomic location.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that ocular and adnexal SCCs treated with adjuvant
radiation therapy had a significantly lower recurrence
rate, compared with SCCs treated without adjuvant
radiation therapy, independent of anatomic location.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1733–1738)
Objective—To evaluate the effect of daily oral administration
of decoquinate to neonatal calves experimentally
challenged with various numbers of Cryptosporidium
Procedure—Calves were purchased from a commercial
dairy during a 5-week period. Calves were housed
in individual hutches and fed milk replacer with or
without decoquinate (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb per day]).
Calves were randomly assigned to treatment and 1 of
5 challenge groups (0, 50, 100, 1000, or 10,000 C
parvum oocysts in 60 mL of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution
administered PO on the day after arrival). Calves
were maintained in the study for as long as 28 days.
Calves were clinically assessed for diarrhea and dehydration.
Fecal samples were submitted for oocyst
enumeration 3 times each week.
Results—Treatment did not affect number of days to
first watery feces (diarrhea), number of days to first
oocyst shedding, or duration of diarrhea or oocyst shedding.
Duration of oocyst shedding was significantly
associated with challenge dose of oocysts administered
to calves and number of days to first oocyst shedding.
Duration of diarrhea and number of days to first oocyst
shedding were significantly associated with week of
arrival and number of days to first watery diarrhea.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Daily treatment
with decoquinate at the dosage used in this
study did not affect oocyst shedding or clinical signs
associated with cryptosporidiosis. However, there
was an indication that if the number of oocysts calves
received could be reduced, then the duration of
oocyst shedding and, hence, environmental loading
of C parvum oocysts could be reduced. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2003;223:839–845)