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  • Author or Editor: Robert M. Kirberger x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe early diagnostic imaging findings in juvenile dogs with diskospondylitis.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 10 client-owned dogs < 6 months of age.

PROCEDURES Medical records were searched to identify juvenile dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of diskospondylitis. Signalment, history, examination findings, diagnostic test results, and imaging procedures were reviewed. Archived diagnostic images were retrieved and retrospectively evaluated. Data analysis was descriptive.

RESULTS All dogs were evaluated for signs of vertebral pain ≤ 3 weeks after treatment for blunt trauma, bite wounds, or systemic illness. The earliest radiographic change was a narrowed intervertebral disk space (found for 28 disk spaces ≤ 2 weeks after evaluation for signs of vertebral pain); subluxation of adjacent vertebrae was identified for 8 of 28 affected disks, either initially or within the following 2 weeks. Vertebral end plate lysis was not an initial radiographic feature but was evident in follow-up radiographs. Ultrasonographic and transverse, multiformatted, volume-rendered CT images were obtained for 5 and 4 dogs, respectively. Ultrasonographic changes included ventrally bulging hypoechoic material at the affected disk site and loss of typical normal reverberation artifact in 4 dogs; these were detected prior to radiographic changes in 2 dogs. Affected disks on volume-rendered CT images had altered coloration in 3 of 4 dogs, and this was identified prior to radiographic changes in 1 dog.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Juvenile dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of diskospondylitis had early imaging findings that were atypical, compared with the changes described for adult dogs with this condition.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the usefulness of pneumoesophagography, compared with that of survey radiography, for characterization of esophageal pathological changes in dogs with endoscopically confirmed intraluminal Spirocerca lupi nodules in the caudal portion of the esophagus.

Design—Diagnostic test evaluation.

Animals—30 dogs with endoscopically confirmed spirocercosis.

Procedures—Dorsoventral (DV) and right lateral recumbent (RLR) thoracic survey radiographs were obtained for each dog. Endoscopy was subsequently performed, the esophagus was inflated with air, and left lateral recumbent, RLR, DV, and ventrodorsal thoracic radiographs were obtained. The amount of esophageal and gastric distention was recorded. Visibility, location, and surface characteristics of lesions and total length of esophageal involvement were recorded independently for each radiograph and modality and compared with each other.

Results—Survey DV radiographs were more reliable than survey RLR radiographs for detecting caudal esophageal pathological changes. Lateral pneumoesophagograms showed more esophageal air and had more visible nodules than did their orthogonal counterparts. Right lateral recumbent pneumoesophagograms allowed for evaluation of the air-filled stomach, particularly the cardiac portion, for additional pathological changes. Pneumoesophagography allowed the mural position (47% located dorsally) and surface characteristics of Spirocerca nodules to be determined. Six of 9 dogs with confirmed malignant disease had an irregular nodule surface suggestive of neoplastic transformation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pneumoesophagography was easily performed in dogs with spirocercosis and showed promise as a cost-effective and safe initial diagnostic procedure for further evaluation and characterization of suspected caudal esophageal lesions.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To ultrasonographically evaluate hemodynamics in the abdominal aorta (AAo) and splanchnic vessels in dogs with experimentally induced normovolemic anemia.

Animals—11 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—The AAo, cranial mesenteric artery (CMA), celiac artery (CA), hilar splenic artery (HSA), and main portal vein (MPV) were evaluated in conscious dogs immediately before and after experimental induction of severe normovolemic anemia (Hct, 16%) and during recovery from moderate and mild anemia (Hct, 26% and 34%, respectively). Peak systolic velocity (PSV) or peak velocity (PV), time-averaged mean velocity (TAVmean), pulsatility index (PI), resistive index (RI), blood flow, congestion index (CI), and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Results were compared for anemic and control states.

Results—Severe anemia caused significant increases in HR (25% to 70%), PSV (AAo, 45.8%; CMA, 56.1%; and CA, 41.9%), PV (MPV, 84.2%), and TAVmean (AAo, 69.4%, CMA, 64.3%; CA, 29.7%; and MPV, 76.9%) and significant decreases in PI (AAo, 26.1%; HSA, 19.3%) and CI (MPV, 45.2%). There was no significant change in PI of the CMA or CA, portal blood flow, or RI of any artery. Significantly higher TAVmean persisted in all vessels during moderate anemia, but higher PSV persisted only in the CMA; PI (CMA and CA) and RI (CA) decreased significantly, but portal blood flow increased significantly. Significant increase in TAVmean (AAo and CMA) persisted during mild anemia, and PI (AAo, CMA, and HSA) but RI (CMA) were significantly lower.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Doppler ultrasonography revealed hyperdynamic circulation in the AAo and splanchnic vessels in dogs with experimentally induced normovolemic anemia. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:187–195)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To estimate the left atrium–to–aorta ratio (LA:Ao) and establish 95% prediction intervals for left ventricular M-mode transthoracic echocardiographic measurements in clinically normal adult Dachshunds.

ANIMALS 40 healthy Dachshunds.

PROCEDURES For each dog, 3 standard 2-D echocardiographic methods (diameter, circumference, and cross-sectional area) were used to measure the left atrium and aorta and calculate the LA:Ao from right parasternal short axis (RPSA) images obtained at the level of the aortic valve cusps. Left ventricular M-mode measurements were acquired from RPSA images obtained at the chordal level immediately below the mitral valve. Descriptive data were generated, and the 95% prediction intervals were calculated by use of an allometric scaling equation and linear regression and compared with those calculated on the basis of data obtained from dogs of multiple breeds in a previous study.

RESULTS The mean (SD) LA:Ao was 1.40 (0.13), 2.09 (0.17), and 2.85 (0.48) for the diameter, circumference, and cross-sectional area methods, respectively. The 95% prediction intervals for the left ventricular M-mode measurements determined by an allometric scaling equation on the basis of Dachshund-specific data were narrower than those determined on the basis of data obtained from dogs of multiple breeds. For that allometric equation, scaling exponents on the basis of Dachshund-specific data ranged from 0.129 to 0.397 and did not absolutely conform to the presumed index for linear measurements (ie, body weight0.333).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The LA:Aos and 95% prediction intervals calculated in this study can be used as preliminary guidelines for echocardiographic measurements of clinically normal Dachshunds.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize the extent and location of atelectasis in healthy anesthetized dogs positioned in lateral recumbency and to determine whether repositioning dogs in sternal recumbency would resolve atelectasis.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized and underwent a CT examination twice with a 2-week interval between examinations. Once anesthetized, each dog was positioned in sternal recumbency, and a breath-hold helical transverse thoracic CT scan was acquired. The dog was then positioned in lateral recumbency for 30 minutes, and images were obtained at 5 preselected sites at 3, 8, 13, 20, and 30 minutes after repositioning (phase 1). Then, the dog was repositioned in sternal recumbency, and CT images were obtained at the 5 preselected sites at 5, 10, and 20 minutes after repositioning (phase 2). The protocol for the second examination was the same as the first except the dog was positioned in the opposite lateral recumbency during phase 1. The attenuation and cross-sectional area of the lung lobes at the preselected sites were measured and compared over time.

RESULTS Lateral recumbency did not cause atelectasis in any of the dogs. Patchy areas of abnormally increased attenuation were infrequently detected in the left cranial lung lobe when dogs were positioned in left lateral recumbency, and those areas failed to resolve when dogs were positioned in sternal recumbency.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the extent of lung attenuation changes was minimal in healthy anesthetized Beagles positioned in lateral recumbency and should not preclude CT examination.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research