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  • Author or Editor: Robert M. Hardy x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether objectively applied ultrasonographic interpretive criteria are statistically useful in differentiating among 7 defined categories of diffuse liver disease in dogs and cats.

Sample Population—Ultrasonographic images of 229 dogs and 104 cats.

Procedures—Liver parenchymal or related sonographic criteria established by the authors were retrospectively and independently applied by 3 radiologists who were not aware of patient status or patient laboratory data. Seven histologic or cytologic categories of diffuse (infiltrative but not nodular) liver diseases were jointly established by the authors and included normal liver; inflammation; round-cell neoplasia; non–round-cell infiltrative, prenodular (early) metastatic neoplasia; lipidosis; vacuolar hepatopathy; and other. Liver parenchymal sonographic criteria included parenchymal sound attenuation with increasing depth, comparative organ echogenicity (liver, spleen, and kidneys), diffuse or patchy hyperechoic or hypoechoic echotexture, uniform or coarse echotexture, portal venous clarity, and liver lobe geometry. Related extrahepatic criteria included gallbladder wall thickness, bile duct diameter, amount and character of gallbladder precipitate, nondependent shadowing in the gallbladder, hepatic vein diameter versus caudal vena cava diameter, peritoneal fluid, spleen echotexture (normal vs abnormal [characterized]), and kidney echotexture. Ultrasonographic criteria were statistically compared to the 7 categories of diffuse liver disease in search of clinically exploitable relationships.

Results—Statistical evaluation of the applied ultrasonographic criteria did not yield clinically acceptable accuracy for discrimination among the 7 categories of diffuse liver diseases (including normal liver) in either species.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Criterion-based ultrasonographic appearance was insufficient to discriminate among canine and feline diffuse infiltrative liver diseases.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate and compare circulating concentrations of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), insulin, and glucose in nondiabetic cats classified by body condition score (BCS) and in cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.

Animals—109 (82 nondiabetic, 21 nonketoacidotic diabetic, and 6 ketoacidotic diabetic) cats.

Procedures—Cats were examined and BCSs were assessed on a scale of 1 to 9. After food was withheld for 12 hours, blood was collected and plasma concentrations of IAPP and serum concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured. Differences in these values were evaluated among nondiabetic cats grouped according to BCS and in diabetic cats grouped as ketoacidotic or nonketoacidotic on the basis of clinicopathologic findings. Correlations were determined among variables.

Results—In nondiabetic cats, BCS was significantly and positively correlated with circulating IAPP and insulin concentrations. Mean plasma IAPP concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 7, and mean serum insulin concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 8. Serum glucose concentrations were not significantly different among nondiabetic cats. Mean IAPP concentrations were similar between nonketoacidotic diabetic cats and nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 8 or 9. Mean IAPP concentrations were significantly reduced in ketoacidotic diabetic cats, compared with those of nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 6 through 8 and of nonketoacidotic diabetic cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that increased BCS (a measure of obesity) is associated with increased circulating concentrations of IAPP and insulin in nondiabetic cats.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research