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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe daily, hourly, and animal-to-animal effects on lying behavior in steers.

Animals—25 crossbred beef steers.

Procedures—Wireless accelerometers were used to record behavioral data for cattle housed in a drylot cattle research facility during two 20-day periods (winter 2007 [n = 10 steers] and spring 2008 [15]). Behavioral data were categorized into lying, standing, and walking behaviors for each time point recorded. Logistic regression models were used to determine potential associations between the percentage of time spent lying and several factors, including time (hour) of day, day of trial, and steer.

Results—Lying behavior was significantly associated with hour of day, and a distinct circadian rhythm was identified. Steers spent > 55% of the time between 8:00 pm and 4:00 am lying and were most active (<30% lying behavior) during feeding periods (6:00 am to 7:00 am and 4:00 pm to 5:00 pm). Model-adjusted mean percentage of time spent lying was significantly associated with study day and was between 45% and 55% on most (27/40 [67.5%]) days. Lying behavior varied significantly among steers, and mean ± SD percentage of time spent lying ranged from 28.9 ± 6.1 % to 66.1 ± 6.6%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cattle had distinct circadian rhythm patterns for lying behavior, and percentage of time spent lying varied by day and among steers. Researchers need to account for factors that affect lying patterns of cattle (ie, time of day, day of trial, and individual animal) when performing research with behavioral outcomes.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare economic outcome for herds not exposed to Neospora caninum with that for herds with various seroprevalences of N caninum infection and evaluate 3 control strategies.

Design—Economic simulation model.

Sample Population—Beef herds with various seroprevalences of N caninum infection.

Procedure—A 5-year simulation model was used. Control strategies that were evaluated included culling females that fail to calve, selling seropositive females and purchasing seronegative replacements, and excluding the daughters of seropositive dams as potential replacements.

Results—For a 5-year period with low prices for feeder calves, endemic N caninum infection decreased mean return to fixed assets by 22.2% when true seroprevalence was 10% and by 29.9% when true seroprevalence was 70%. Percentage decrease in return to fixed assets was less dramatic when a 5-year period with high prices for feeder calves was evaluated. Analysis indicated that 2 control strategies (culling females that fail to give birth to a calf and selling seropositive female cattle and purchasing seronegative replacement female cattle) were not likely to be economically beneficial. The third control strategy (testing the entire herd for N caninum infection and excluding the female offspring of seropositive dams as replacements) appeared to be a reasonable control strategy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For the assumptions in the model, endemic N caninum infection decreases return to fixed assets for cow-calf herds. Of the potential control strategies evaluated, testing the entire herd for N caninum infection and excluding the daughters of seropositive dams as potential replacements provided the best economic return. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1597–1604)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate and analyze data from controlled studies on the effectiveness of vaccinating cattle with commercially available viral antigen vaccines for mitigation of the effects of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC).

Design—Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sample—31 studies comprising 88 trials.

Procedures—Studies that reported the effectiveness of commercially available bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3) vaccines for protection of cattle against BRDC or its components were included in the analysis. Studies or trials were categorized as natural exposure or experimental challenge and were further divided by the viral antigen evaluated and vaccine type (modified-live virus [MLV] or inactivated vaccine). Meta-analysis was performed; summary Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios were determined, and Forest plots were generated.

Results—In natural exposure trials, beef calves vaccinated with various antigen combinations had a significantly lower BRDC morbidity risk than did nonvaccinated control calves. In trials evaluating BHV-1 and MLV BVDV vaccines in experimental challenge models, vaccinated calves had a lower BRDC morbidity risk than did control calves; however, in experimental challenge trials evaluating MLV BRSV and PI3 vaccines, no significant difference in morbidity or mortality risk was found between vaccinated and control calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Estimating clinical efficacy from results of experimental challenge studies requires caution because these models differ substantially from those involving natural exposure. The literature provides data but does not provide sufficiently strong evidence to guide definitive recommendations for determining which virus components are necessary to include in a vaccination program for prevention or mitigation of BRDC in cattle.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) on clearance of inhaled antigens from the lungs of calves.

Animals—Eleven 6- to 8-week-old Holstein bull calves.

Procedures—Aerosolized 99mtechnetium (99mTc)-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetate (DTPA; 3 calves), commonly used to measure integrity of the pulmonary epithelium, and 99mTc-labeled ovalbumin (OA; 8 calves), commonly used as a prototype allergen, were used to evaluate pulmonary clearance before, during, and after experimentally induced infection with BRSV or sham inoculation with BRSV. Uptake in plasma (6 calves) and lung-efferent lymph (1 calf) was examined.

Results—Clearance of 99mTc-DTPA was significantly increased during BRSV infection; clearance of 99mTc-OA was decreased on day 7 after inoculation. Clearance time was correlated with severity of clinical disease, and amounts of 99mTc-OA in plasma and lymph were inversely correlated with clearance time. Minimum amounts of 99mTc-OA were detected at time points when pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-OA was most delayed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BRSV caused infection of the respiratory tract with peak signs of clinical disease at 7 or 8 days after inoculation. Concurrently, there was a diminished ability to move inhaled protein antigen out of the lungs. Prolonged exposure to inhaled antigens during BRSV infection may enhance antigen presentation with consequent allergic sensitization and development of chronic inflammatory lung disease.

Impact for Human Medicine—Infection of humans with respiratory syncytial virus early after birth is associated with subsequent development of allergic asthma. Results for BRSV infection in these calves suggested a supportive mechanism for this scenario.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research