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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate quantification of the amount of carbamylated hemoglobin (CarbHb), using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and a new dynamic capillary coating system to separate hemoglobin derivatives, and to assess the use of CarbHb amounts to evaluate long-term urea exposure and differential diagnoses of azotemia in dogs.

Animals—8 dogs with renal failure, 2 dogs with diabetes mellitus, and 7 control dogs.

Procedure—Optimal analytic conditions for separation of CarbHb and other hemoglobin derivatives in blood samples obtained from dogs were determined, using a commercial analysis system developed for the detection of glycohemoglobin Hb A1c (GlycHb) in human blood samples. Relative content of hemoglobin derivatives in blood from 10 dogs with renal failure or endocrine diseases were compared with values for 7 dogs without renal or endocrine diseases.

Results—Satisfactory resolution of hemoglobin derivatives was obtained, which permitted identification and quantitation of the amount of CarbHb as a percentage of the total amount of hemoglobin. Normal or increased amounts of GlycHb did not interfere with CarbHb analysis. Dogs with chronic renal failure had considerably higher peak amounts of CarbHb than dogs with acute renal failure, a dog with chronic renal failure that was treated by use of hemodialysis, or dogs without renal disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Amounts of CarbHb in blood samples obtained from dogs can be readily quantified by use of capillary electrophoresis. Assessment of the amount of CarbHb can be used to facilitate evaluation of the cause of azotemia in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1302–1306)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To detect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in serum and CSF and determine relationships between MMP activity and severity of disease, duration of clinical signs, and duration of hospitalization in dogs with acute intervertebral disk disease (IVDD).

Animals—35 dogs with acute IVDD and 8 clinically normal control dogs.

Procedure—CSF and serum were collected from affected and control dogs. Zymography was used to detect MMP-9.

Results—Activity of MMP-9 in CSF was detected in 6 of 35 dogs with IVDD; activity was significantly more common in dogs with duration of signs < 24 hours. Paraplegic dogs were more likely to have MMP-9 activity in the CSF than non-paraplegic dogs. No significant difference in hospitalization time was detected in dogs with IVDD between those with and without activity of MMP-9 in the CSF. Serum MMP-9 was detected more frequently in dogs with IVDD than in control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data were consistent with results of experimental rodent spinal cord injury studies that indicate that MMP-9 is expressed early during secondary injury.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In March 1989, the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service sampled raw chicken carcasses and giblets at a federally inspected slaughter establishment in Puerto Rico to determine the effects of adding chlorine to carcass and giblet chill water on bacterial contents of raw poultry products. Over four 8-hour workdays, 200 carcass rinse samples were collected at 3 sites in the establishment; 39 giblet rinse samples were collected at 1 site. Analyses of the carcass rinse samples indicated that carcasses had average aerobe plate counts of log10 3.20 before chilling and 2.51 after chilling; Enterobacteriaceae counts of log10 2.57 before chilling and 1.75 after chilling; and Escherichia coli counts of log10 2.04 before chilling and 1.20 after chilling. Salmonellae were found on 43% of the carcasses before chilling and on 46% after chilling. Analyses of the giblet and neck rinse samples indicated that raw giblets and necks after chilling had average aerobe plate count of log10 3.49, Enterobacteriaceae count of log10 2.57, and E coli count of log10 1.06. Salmonellae were found on 12% of the giblets and necks sampled.

Results compared favorably with giblet and neck rinse sample results obtained during a baseline sampling study in November and December 1987. The baseline results indicated aerobe plate count of log10 3.72; Enterobacteriaceae count of log10 2.90; E coli count of log10 1.14; and salmonellae on 69% of the giblets and necks sampled.

Placing raw chicken carcasses in chlorinated chill water reduced aerobe, Enterobacteriaceae, and E coli plate counts. Prevalence of carcasses with salmonellae remained nearly the same. Results indicate that chlorination of chill water aids in control of bacterial crosscontamination of carcasses and giblets and necks.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate intestinal permeability and gluten sensitivity in a family of Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWT) affected with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), protein-losing nephropathy (PLN), or both.

Animals—6 affected adult dogs.

Procedure—Intestinal biopsy specimens, urine protein- to-creatinine ratio, serum concentrations of albumin and globulin, and concentration of α1-protease inhibitor in feces were evaluated before, during, and 13 weeks after daily administration of 10 g of gluten for 7 weeks. Eosinophils and lymphocytes-plasmacytes were enumerated in intestinal biopsy specimens. Intestinal permeability was evaluated before and during the sixth week of gluten administration via cellobiose-mannitol and chromium-EDTA absorption tests.

Results—Serum globulin concentration decreased significantly after prolonged administration of gluten. Although not significant, there was an increase in lymphocytes- plasmacytes and a decrease in eosinophils in intestinal biopsy specimens. Furthermore, these counts were greater than those reported for clinically normal dogs. Gluten administration did not increase intestinal permeability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Daily administration of gluten was associated with a significant decrease in serum globulin concentration in SCWT affected with PLE or PLN, but other variables remained unchanged. Although enhanced wheatgluten sensitivity may be one factor involved in the pathogenesis of PLE or PLN in SCWT, this syndrome does not appear to be the result of a specific sensitivity to gluten. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:518–524)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether passage of whole blood through a microaggregate filter by use of a syringe pump would damage canine erythrocytes.

SAMPLE

Blood samples obtained from 8 healthy client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Whole blood was passed through a standard microaggregate filter by use of a syringe pump at 3 standard administration rates (12.5, 25, and 50 mL/h). Prefilter and postfilter blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of a simulated transfusion. Variables measured at each time point included erythrocyte osmotic fragility, mean corpuscular fragility, RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, RBC distribution width, and RBC morphology. In-line pressure when blood passed through the microaggregate filter was measured continuously throughout the simulated transfusion. After the simulated transfusion was completed, filters were visually analyzed by use of scanning electron microscopy.

RESULTS

Regardless of administration rate, there was no significant difference in mean corpuscular fragility, RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, or RBC distribution width between prefilter and postfilter samples. Additionally, there were no differences in in-line pressure during the simulated transfusion among administration rates. Echinocytes were the erythrocyte morphological abnormality most commonly observed at the end of the transfusion at administration rates of 12.5 and 25 mL/h.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that regardless of the administration rate, the microaggregate filter did not alter fragility of canine RBCs, but may have altered the morphology. It appeared that the microaggregate filter would not contribute to substantial RBC damage for transfusions performed with a syringe pump.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In June and September 1988, the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service sampled raw chicken carcasses at a federally inspected slaughter establishment in Puerto Rico to determine the effects of changing the scalding equipment on bacterial contents of raw poultry products. The scalding equipment was changed to a countercurrent configuration, with a postscald hot-water rinse cabinet that sprayed carcasses as they exited the scalder. Analysis of 250 carcass-rinse samples collected at preevisceration, prechill, and postchill sites over 7 days indicated that carcasses had mean aerobe plate counts of log103.73 before evisceration, 3.18 before chilling, and 2.87 after chilling; Enterobacteriaceae counts of log102.70 before evisceration, 2.25 before chilling, and 1.56 after chilling; and Escherichia coli counts of log102.09 before evisceration, 1.61 before chilling, and 0.89 after chilling. Salmonellae were found on 24% of the carcasses before evisceration, on 28% before chilling, and on 49% after chilling. Although bacterial count reductions were significant at all 3 sites, the proportion of carcasses contaminated with salmonellae in this study was higher at the postchill than prechill site (49 vs 28%). This no doubt was caused by cross-contamination in the chiller. These percentages indicated that although simple scalder changes contributed substantially to the improvement of the bacterial quality of chicken carcasses, additional interventions in the chilling process (such as chlorination of chill water) are important to control cross-contamination and to preserve the positive effects obtained by the scalder changes.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the genetic influence on expression of traits associated with canine hip dysplasia.

Animals—193 dogs from an experimental canine pedigree.

Procedure—An experimental canine pedigree was developed for linkage analysis of hip dysplasia by mating dysplastic Labrador Retrievers with nondysplastic Greyhounds. A statistical model was designed to test the effects of Labrador Retriever and Greyhound alleles on age at detection of femoral capital epiphyseal ossification, 8-month distraction index, and 8-month dorsolateral subluxation score.

Results—The additive effect was significant for age at detection of femoral capital epiphyseal ossification. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates (± SD) for this trait were 6.4 ± 1.95, 10.2 ± 2.0, 10.8 ± 3.1, 11.4 ± 2.1, and 13.6 ± 4.6 days of age for Greyhounds, Greyhound backcross dogs, F1 dogs, Labrador Retriever backcross dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. The additive effect was also significant for the distraction index. Estimates for this trait were 0.21 ± 0.07, 0.29 ± 0.15, 0.44 ± 0.12, 0.52 ± 0.18, and 0.6 ± 0.17 for the same groups, respectively. For the dorsolateral subluxation score, additive and dominance effects were significant. Estimates for this trait were 73.5 ± 4.1, 71.3 ± 6.5, 69.1 ± 6.0, 50.6 ± 12.9, and 48.4 ± 7.7%, respectively, for the same groups.

Conclusions—In this canine pedigree, traits associated with canine hip dysplasia are heritable. Phenotypic differences exist among founder dogs of each breed and their crosses. This pedigree should be useful for identification of quantitative trait loci underlying the dysplastic phenotype. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63: 1029–1035)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate the number of dogs required to find linkage to heritable traits of hip dysplasia in dogs from an experimental pedigree.

Animals—147 Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, and their crossbreed offspring.

Procedure—Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia were crossed with unaffected Greyhounds. Age at detection of femoral capital ossification, distraction index (DI), hip joint dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) score, and hip joint osteoarthritis (OA) were recorded. Power to find linkage of a single marker to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling 100% of the variation in a dysplastic trait in the backcross dogs was determined.

Results—For the DI at the observed effect size, recombination fraction of 0.05, and heterozygosity of 0.75, 35 dogs in the backcross of the F1 to the Greyhound generation would yield linkage at a power of 0.8. For the DLS score, 35 dogs in the backcross to the Labrador Retriever generation would be required for linkage at the same power. For OSS, 45 dogs in the backcross to the founding Labrador Retrievers would yield linkage at the same power. Fewer dogs were projected to be necessary to find linkage to hip OA. Testing for linkage to the DLS at 4 loci simultaneously, each controlling 25% of the phenotypic variation, yielded an overall power of 0.7.

Conclusions and Clinical Significance—Based on this conservative single-marker estimate, this pedigree has the requisite power to find microsatellites linked to susceptibility loci for hip dysplasia and hip OA by breeding a reasonable number of backcross dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;222:418–424)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize osteolytic lesions in cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) hospitalized for rehabilitation and describe methods used for the management of such lesions.

ANIMALS

25 stranded, cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles hospitalized between 2008 and 2018.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of sea turtles with a diagnosis of osteolytic lesions were reviewed retrospectively to obtain the date of diagnosis, clinical signs, radiographic findings, microbial culture results, hematologic and plasma biochemical data, cytologic and histologic findings, antimicrobial history, time to first negative culture result, treatment duration, and outcome.

RESULTS

Lesions were identified radiographically a median of 50 days after admission and were located within epiphyses or metaphyses of various appendicular joints. Lesions were associated with periarticular swelling (n = 24), lameness (16), lethargy (2), and hyporexia (2). Bacterial culture yielded growth of single organisms (n = 16), multiple organisms (2), or no growth (6). Significant differences in hematologic and biochemical data were detected between the times of diagnosis and convalescence. Cytologic and histologic findings characterized the lesions as osteomyelitis leading to septic arthritis. Sixteen sea turtles were managed medically, and 8 were managed medically and surgically. Surgery resulted in rapid improvement in joint mobility and overall clinical status. Most (22/25 [88%]) sea turtles survived and were released after long-term management.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

During rehabilitation, cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles may be affected by osteomyelitis. Medical management based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing was effective for most turtles. Long term management efforts in turtles are justified by high survival rate.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association