A 12-year-old sexually intact male Quarter Horse was examined for diffuse subcutaneous emphysema and reluctance to walk. Physical examination revealed a 25-cm-long laceration of the left axillary region that had been present for several days. The patient was severely dyspneic with a respiratory rate of 80 breaths/min and tachycardic with a heart rate of 120 beats/min. Mucous membranes were cyanotic with a capillary refill time of 3 seconds. The rectal temperature was within reference limits. Auscultation of the thorax was compromised as a result of the subcutaneous emphysema, but normal airway sounds were absent in the dorsal aspect of
Objective—To compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period.
Design—Cohort study of ocular structures and retrospective case series of horses with and without HERDA.
Animals—The cohort portion of the study involved 10 Quarter Horses with HERDA and 10 Quarter Horses without HERDA; the retrospective case series involved 28 horses with HERDA and 291 horses without HERDA.
Procedures—Ophthalmic examinations, Schirmer tear tests, tonometry, corneal pachymetry, histologic examinations, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed in cohorts of Quarter Horses with and without HERDA. Records were reviewed to determine the incidence of corneal ulcers in horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period.
Results—Corneal thickness of horses with HERDA was significantly less than that of control horses, but tear production of horses with HERDA was significantly greater than that of control horses. Results of SEM revealed zones of disorganized, haphazardly arranged collagen fibrils in corneas of horses with HERDA that were not evident in corneas of control horses. The incidence of corneal ulcers was significantly greater for horses with HERDA than for horses without HERDA during the 4-year period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Alterations in corneal thickness, arrangement of collagen fibers, and incidence of corneal ulcers indicated that abnormalities in horses with HERDA were not limited to the skin.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a maxillary nerve block via a modified infraorbital approach, applied before rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy of dogs, would decrease procedural nociception, minimize cardiorespiratory anesthetic effects, and improve recovery quality.
ANIMALS 8 healthy adult hound-type dogs
PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs received 0.5% bupivacaine (0.1 mL/kg) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution as a maxillary nerve block via a modified infraorbital approach. A 5-cm, 20-gauge over-the-needle catheter was placed retrograde within each infraorbital canal, and bupivacaine or saline solution was administered into each pterygopalatine region. Rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy were performed. Variables monitored included heart rate, systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP), plasma cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations, purposeful movement, and pain scores. After a 14-day washout period, the other treatment was administered on the contralateral side, and rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy were repeated.
RESULTS SAP, MAP, and DAP were significantly higher for the saline solution treatment than for the bupivacaine treatment, irrespective of the time point. Plasma cortisol concentrations after saline solution treatment were significantly higher 5 minutes after nasal biopsy than at biopsy. Heart rate, norepinephrine concentration, purposeful movement, and pain score were not significantly different between treatments.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maxillary nerve block via a modified infraorbital approach prior to rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy reduced procedural nociception as determined on the basis of blood pressures and plasma cortisol concentrations during anesthesia. These findings warrant further evaluation in dogs with nasal disease.