Objective—To assess serum concentrations of adiponectin and characterize adiponectin protein complexes in healthy dogs.
Animals—11 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Sera collected from 10 dogs were evaluated via velocity sedimentation and ultracentrifugation, SDS-PAGE, western immunoblotting, and radioimmunoassay. Visceral adipose tissue (approx 90 g) was collected from the falciform ligament of a healthy dog undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy, and adiponectin gene expression was assessed via a real-time PCR procedure.
Results—Adiponectin gene expression was detected in visceral adipose tissue. Serum adiponectin concentrations ranged from 0.85 to 1.5 μg/mL (mean concentration, 1.22 μg/mL). In canine serum, adiponectin was present as a multimer, consisting of a low–molecular-weight complex (180 kd); as 3 (180-, 90-, and 60-kd) complexes under denaturing conditions; as 2 (90- and 60-kd) complexes under reducing conditions; and as a dimer, a monomer, and globular head region (60, 30, and 28 kd, respectively) under reducing-denaturing conditions. It is likely that adiponectin also circulates as a high–molecular-weight (360- to 540-kd) complex in canine serum, but resolution of this complex was not possible via SDS-PAGE.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After exposure to identical experimental conditions, adiponectin protein complexes in canine serum were similar to those detected in human and rodent sera. Circulating adiponectin concentrations in canine serum were slightly lower than concentrations in human serum. Adiponectin gene expression was identified in canine visceral adipose tissue. Results suggest that adiponectin could be used as an early clinical marker for metabolic derangements, including obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus in dogs.
Objective—To characterize adiponectin protein complexes in lean and obese horses.
Animals—26 lean horses and 18 obese horses.
Procedures—Body condition score (BCS) and serum insulin activity were measured for each horse. Denaturing and native western blot analyses were used to evaluate adiponectin complexes in serum. A human ELISA kit was validated and used to quantify high–molecular weight (HMW) complexes. Correlations between variables were made, and HMW values were compared between groups.
Results—Adiponectin was present as a multimer consisting of HMW (> 720-kDa), low-molecular weight (180-kDa), and trimeric (90-kDa) complexes in serum. All complexes were qualitatively reduced in obese horses versus lean horses, but the percentage of complexes < 250 kDa was higher in obese versus lean horses. High–molecular weight adiponectin concentration measured via ELISA was negatively correlated with serum insulin activity and BCS and was lower in obese horses (mean ± SD, 3.6 ± 3.9 μg/mL), compared with lean horses (8.0 ± 4.6 μg/mL).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—HMW adiponectin is measurable via ELISA, and concentration is negatively correlated with BCS and serum insulin activity in horses. A greater understanding of the role of adiponectin in equine metabolism will provide insight into the pathophysiology of metabolic disease conditions.