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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine correlations between dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) and urine pH, urine specific gravity, and blood pH in goats.

Animals—24 crossbred goat wethers. Procedures—Goats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 DCAD groups (−150, −75, 0, or +75 mEq/kg of feed) and fed pelleted feed and ground hay for 7 days. The diet was then supplemented with ammonium chloride to achieve the assigned DCAD of each group for 7 days. Urine was obtained for pH and specific gravity measurements at hours −3 to −1, 1 to 3, 5 to 7, 9 to 11, and 13 to 15 relative to the morning feeding. Blood pH was determined on alternate days of the study period.

Results—Goats in the −150 and −75 mEq/kg groups had a urine pH of 6.0 to 6.5 two days after initiation of administration of ammonium chloride, and urine pH decreased to < 6.0 by day 7. Goats in the 0 mEq/kg group had a urine pH from 6.0 to 6.5 on day 5, whereas urine pH in goats in the +75 mEq/kg group remained > 6.5 throughout the trial. Urine specific gravity differed only between the −150 mEq/kg and the −75 mEq/kg groups. Blood pH in the −150 mEq/kg group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Goats in the 0 mEq/kg DCAD group had a urine pH of 6.0 to 6.5 five days after intitiation of feeding the diet, and that pH was maintained through day 7, without significant reduction in blood pH. This may serve as a target for diet formulation for the prevention of urolithiasis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records were reviewed for 93 dogs with bacterial pneumonia from which transtracheal aspiration samples were obtained for culturing of Mycoplasma spp and aerobic bacteria. On the basis of culture results, there were 65 Mycoplasma-positive dogs, including 7 dogs for which only Mycoplasma spp were isolated, and 28 Mycoplasma-negative dogs. Most dogs were > 5 years old, and differences in breed or gender distribution among the 3 groups of dogs were not detected. Hematologic and serum biochemical analysis results did not differ significantly between Mycoplasma-positive and Mycoplasma-negative dogs. Fifty-three of 93 (57%) dogs had a concurrent medical problem that may have predisposed them to developing bacterial pneumonia as a sequelae to aspiration or immunosuppression. Mycoplasma-positive dogs were significantly (P < 0.005) more likely to have > 1 species of bacteria isolated from their transtracheal aspiration samples. Clinical outcome was favorable when antimicrobials were selected on the basis of antimicrobial susceptibility results for the other bacterial isolates and not on results of the antimicrobial activity against Mycoplasma spp. It could not be determined whether Mycoplasma spp were primary pathogens or only opportunists.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A study was designed to identify epidemiologic factors associated with the development and spread of salmonellae in horses in a veterinary teaching hospital, through a case-control study and a longitudinal follow-up prospective study. In the casecontrol study, 44 horses shedding salmonellae in feces were compared with 99 control horses not shedding salmonellae in feces; regarding breed, sex, age and initial diagnosis, none of the odds ratios for study factors was significant. The factors found to be associated with fecal shedding of salmonellae in the prospective study included diarrhea at the time of admission to the hospital, fever while hospitalized, and a change in diet while hospitalized. Horses identified to be shedding salmonellae in feces were not limited to those with clinical signs of salmonellosis; however, spread of salmonellae from a shedder without clinical signs of disease to other hospitalized horses was not identified. The most common serovars of Salmonella isolated were oranienburg and newport.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate efficacy of monthly administration of selamectin and fipronil against Ctenocephalides felis in cats.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—36 healthy cats.

Procedure—Cats known to be free of fleas were infested with 100 unfed adult fleas on days –28 and –21. On days 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120, sixteen cats (8 pairs/treatment group) were treated by topical administration of selamectin (6 mg/kg [2.7 mg/lb] of body weight) or fipronil (7.5 mg/kg [3.4 mg/lb]). Four control cats (2 pairs) were not treated. On day –6 and every 2 weeks after initial treatment, comb counts were performed to detect fleas. Flea counts were recorded, and fleas (≤ 50) that had been removed were replaced onto the cat. On day 89, fleas were not replaced. On day 91 and every 7 days until the end of the study (day 150), cats were challenged with 20 adult fleas. Flea counts were compared between and within treatments.

Results—14 days after treatment, geometric mean flea counts were reduced by 71.2% by fipronil treatment and 35.3% by selamectin treatment. Both treatments resulted in 97 to 98% reduction in flea counts on day 29 and 99.8 to 100% reduction from day 44 to the end of the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Selamectin is as effective as fipronil in treating infestation in cats housed for 3 months in a flea-infested environment under conditions known to support the flea life cycle and in protecting against subsequent weekly challenges with C felis for an additional 2 months. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1666–1668)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate efficacy of monthly administration of selamectin, fipronil, and imidacloprid against Ctenocephalides felis in dogs.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—44 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Dogs known to be free of fleas were infested with 100 unfed adult fleas on days –28 and –21. On days 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120, dogs (12/group) were treated by topical administration of selamectin (6 mg/kg [2.7 mg/lb] of body weight), fipronil (7.5 mg/kg [3.4 mg/lb]), or imidacloprid (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb]); 8 untreated dogs were used as controls. On day –6 and every 2 weeks after initial treatment, comb counts of viable adult fleas were made, and fleas (≤ 50/dog) were replaced onto the dog from which they were removed. On day 89, fleas were not replaced. On day 91 and every 7 days until the end of the study, dogs were challenged with 20 adult fleas.

Results—14 days after initial treatment, geometric mean flea counts were reduced by 97.5 to 99.1% for all treatments, compared with pretreatment counts on day –6. Selamectin, fipronil, and imidacloprid reduced geometric mean flea counts by 99.7 to 100% from day 29 to the end of the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Selamectin is as effective as fipronil and imidacloprid in reducing C felis infestation in dogs housed for 3 months in a flea-infested environment under conditions known to support the flea life cycle, and in protecting against subsequent weekly challenges with C felis for an additional 2 months. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 1669–1671)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The abomasa of 1,949 slaughtered feedlot cattle, 45 necropsied feedlot cattle that died 2 to 45 days after arrival, and 45 necropsied pastured cattle were opened and examined. Of these organs, 484,1, and none, respectively, contained erosions. The slaughtered cattle were fattened at 3 locations: 1,305 with 430 eroded abomasa were fed a ration of corn in northeastern Colorado; 144 cattle with 4 affected abomasa fed a ration of milo in south-central Arizona; and 500 cattle with 50 affected abomasa fed a ration of milo and corn in northwestern Texas. The red-brown lesions developed late during the second semester of fattening and were located mostly on fundic folds. Those on fold edges were linear and were 2 to 15 cm long, whereas those on fold sides were punctate and were 2 to 15 mm in diameter. Normal fold edges contained fewer goblet cells and less surface mucus than did fold sides. Eroded folds had disruption of surface epithelium, damage to endothelial cells, and dilated, thrombosed, congested, and ruptured capillaries. Mean pH values of 16 normal and 17 eroded abomasa were 4.7 and 3.9, respectively. Necrosis of all tissue toward the mucosal surface of erosions was extensive. The cause of gastric erosion in cattle is not known.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine anti-bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) antibody titers for nasal secretions and serum from beef calves following administration of a modified-live (MLV) BRSV vaccine.

ANIMALS

60 healthy newborn purebred beef calves.

PROCEDURES

Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: intranasal (IN)-SC (IN MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and SC MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), SC-IN (SC MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), or NO-IN (no vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age). Nasal secretion and serum samples were collected for determination of anti-BRSV antibodies within 24 hours of birth and 2 and 6 months of age.

RESULTS

Titers of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in serum were similar among groups at each sampling time. Within 24 hours of birth, nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers were negligible. At 2 months, mean nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers for calves in IN-SC, SC-IN, and NO-IN groups were 192.84, 224.49, and 114.71, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Concentrations of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in the nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in the serum of young beef calves following an MLV BRSV vaccine protocol that consisted of IN or SC vaccine within 24 hours of birth and vice versa at 2 months of age were not different from that following only an IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age. However, the lack of any differences may have been attributed to other factors. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:746–751)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research