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  • Author or Editor: Robert J. Sonn x
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In a sheep flock, Chlamydia psittaci, Campylobacter fetus, Ca jejuni, and Salmonella dublin caused abortions. A vaccine that contained C psittaci type I from 2 sources: a cow with pneumonia and an aborted ovine fetus, Ca fetus, Ca jejuni, and 4 strains of K99 Escherichia coli was given to 240 ewes before they were bred. All fetuses, placentas, and lambs, that died within 36 hours of birth were examined for infectious agents. Of 55 abortions, 30 (55%) were caused by Chlamydia or Campylobacter spp; 25 of the 30 (83%) abortions took place in the nonvaccinated group (n = 240). Forty-five more lambs survived in the vaccinated group than in the nonvaccinated group. Abortion rates for Chlamydia and Campylobacter spp (2.1 vs 10.4% in vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups, respectively) were significantly different (P = 0.003). Abortion rates for S dublin were not significantly different between groups. The Salmonella epizootic was controlled quickly by sanitation and treatment procedures. The vaccine was at least 80% efficacious against Chlamydia and Campylobacter spp and appeared to be protective.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify potential pathogens in feces from llama and alpaca crias with diarrhea.

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—45 unweaned crias with diarrhea.

Procedure—Fecal samples were evaluated for Eimeria spp, Giardia spp, Cryptosporidium spp, enteric viruses, and Salmonella spp. A questionnaire yielded information concerning herd management and presence of other affected camelids.

Results—28 crias were ≤ 31 days old, 11 were 32 to 62 days old, and 6 were 63 to 210 days old. Potential pathogens were isolated from feces from 32 of the 45 crias. A total of 39 potential pathogens were obtained, including coronavirus (n = 19 crias; 42%), Giardia spp (8; 18%), Eimeria spp (6; 13%), Cryptosporidium spp (4; 9%), rotavirus (1; 2%), and nematode ova (1; 2%). Salmonella spp were not isolated. Most crias from which potential pathogens were isolated were identified during outbreaks of diarrhea involving other camelids, although only coronavirus was isolated from crias identified during outbreaks involving adult camelids. Coronavirus was detected throughout the year, whereas protozoa were most commonly isolated during the fall and winter.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a variety of potential pathogens may be isolated from young crias with diarrhea. Many crias shed coronavirus, which may also have been affecting older camelids. Protozoa were isolated most often during wetter months, suggesting that crias born during these months may have greater exposure to protozoal pathogens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: 1806–1808)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association