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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of coumaphos, an organophosphate (OP) acaricide, at concentrations up to 2 times higher than the highest concentration required by the US Eradication Program against all stages of an OP-resistant strain of Boophilus microplusin experimentally infested cattle.

Animals—16 tick-naïve 200-kg female Hereford calves.

Procedure—Four groups of cattle (4 calves/group) were all infested with Boophilus ticks 3 times before treatment. Each group was treated with coumaphos as follows: group 1, at 0.165% active ingredient (AI); group 2, at 0.299% AI; group 3, at 0.566% AI; and group 4, not treated. Following treatment, ticks were collected for 21 days. Ticks collected 1 to 7, 8 to 14, and 15 to 21 days after treatment were considered adults, nymphs, and larvae, respectively, at time of treatment.

Results—Overall control at 0.165, 0.299, and 0.566% AI was 52.9, 75.8, and 89.7%, respectively. Control of adults ranged from 4.3% at 0.165% AI to 73.5% at 0.566% AI. Control of nymphs ranged from 60.6% at 0.165% AI to 97.3% at 0.566% AI. Control of larvae was > 98% at all coumaphos concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—All coumaphos concentrations failed to provide acceptable control for use in the US Eradication Program against OPresistant ticks. Treatment was least effective against adults and most effective against larvae. Even at 0.566% AI (2 times higher than required by the US Eradication Program), ticks were not eradicated, placing the United States at risk from dispersing cattle harboring viable ticks to uninfested areas. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:684–689)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop partial budgets of the economic costs of 2 test strategies for screening cattle for persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).

Design—Partial budget analysis.

Animals—938 calves arriving at 2 stocker operations.

Procedure—Calves were tested to determine prevalence of persistent BVDV infection. Test strategies that were evaluated included a single-test strategy consisting of immunohistochemical staining of skin biopsy specimens from all animals and a 2-test strategy consisting of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assaying of pooled blood samples followed by immunohistochemical staining of skin biopsy specimens from animals in pools for which assay results were positive. Breakeven costs (ie, cost of persistent BVDV infection per animal necessary to justify whole-herd diagnostic testing) associated with each test strategy were calculated as a function of disease prevalence and test cost.

Results—Apparent prevalence of persistent BVDV infection was 0.32%. Sensitivity and specificity of the PCR assay for pooled samples were 100% and 89.7%, respectively. Regardless of the prevalence of persistent BVDV infection, the break-even cost for the 2-test strategy was lower than the break-even cost for the single-test strategy. However, the economic advantage was greatest when prevalence was low.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that using a 2-test strategy to screen cattle for persistent BVDV infection, whereby the first test involves PCR assaying of pooled samples and the second involves immunohistochemical testing only of those animals represented in pooled samples with positive assay results, will reduce the cost of screening incoming feedlot cattle, compared with immunohistochemical testing of all animals. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:249–254)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalence of and identify risk factors for fecal Salmonella shedding among hospitalized horses with signs of gastrointestinal tract disease.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—465 hospitalized horses with gastrointestinal tract disease.

Procedure—Horses were classified as positive or negative for fecal Salmonella shedding during hospitalization by means of standard aerobic bacteriologic methods. The relationship between investigated exposure factors and fecal Salmonella shedding was examined by means of logistic regression.

Results—The overall prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding was 13%. Salmonella serotype Newport was the most commonly isolated serotype (12/60 [20%]), followed by Anatum (8/60 [13%]), Java (13%), and Saint-paul (13%). Foals with gastrointestinal tract disease were 3.27 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. Adult horses that had been treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization were 3.09 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that had not been treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization. Adult horses that underwent abdominal surgery were 2.09 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that did not undergo abdominal surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a history of exposure to antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization and abdominal surgery during hospitalization were associated with Salmonella shedding in adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. Foals with gastrointestinal tract disease were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms than were adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:275–281)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the outcome in dogs diagnosed with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS) at ≥ 5 years of age treated with medical management only (M) or with surgical attenuation (S). The hypothesis was that dogs undergoing surgical attenuation would have a longer survival time than dogs undergoing medical management only.

ANIMALS

351 dogs definitively diagnosed with EHPSS at ≥ 5 years of age.

PROCEDURES

Medical records from 2009 to 2019 at 16 veterinary teaching hospitals were evaluated. Data collected included signalment, clinical signs at diagnosis, clinicopathologic data, surgical and medical treatments, shunt morphology, clinical signs and medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis, and survival time.

RESULTS

351 dogs (M, 119 [33.9%]; S, 232 [66.1%]) were included in the study. Survival time was longer with surgery than medical management (hazard ratio, 4.2; M, 3.4 years; S, 10.9 years). Continued clinical signs at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common with medical management (M, 40% [33/88]; S, 14% [21/155]). Continued medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common in the medical management group (M, 78% [69/88]; S, 34% [53/155]). Perioperative mortality rate was 7.3%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dogs diagnosed at ≥ 5 years of age with EHPSS have significantly better survival times and fewer clinical signs with surgical attenuation, compared with medical management. Older dogs have similar surgical mortality rates to dogs of all ages after surgical EHPSS attenuation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association