Case Description—A 3-year-old castrated male Yorkshire Terrier was referred because of a 3-day history of vomiting, hyporexia, and lethargy after suspected ingestion of magnetic desk toys. Multiple metallic gastric foreign bodies were visible on radiographic views obtained 24 hours previously by the referring veterinarian.
Clinical Findings—On physical examination of the dog, findings included moderate dyspnea, signs of pain in the cranial portion of the abdomen, hypothermia, and tachycardia. Repeated radiography revealed moderate pleural effusion and the presence of several round metallic foreign bodies in a linear ring formation in the distal aspect of the esophagus and gastric cardia.
Treatment and Outcome—Endoscopy was performed, at which time the dog became increasingly dyspneic, tachycardic, and hypotensive. Thoracocentesis was performed, and a large volume of septic exudate was removed from the left hemithorax. Exploratory surgery of the thoracic and abdominal cavities was performed, during which the magnetic foreign bodies were removed and esophageal and gastric perforations were debrided and closed. The dog died following acute cardiac arrest 48 hours after surgery.
Clinical Relevance—Ingestion of multiple magnetic foreign bodies carries a high risk of gastrointestinal tract perforation, volvulus, and obstruction. Immediate surgical intervention is recommended in such cases and would have likely improved the outcome for the dog of this report.
A 2-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for recurring estrous behavior after ovariohysterectomy and 2 subsequent exploratory laparotomies.
Physical examination revealed no abnormalities. A serum sample tested positive for anti-Müllerian hormone and had a progesterone concentration consistent with the presence of an ovarian remnant. Results of abdominal ultrasonographic examination suggested presence of a slightly hyperechoic mass caudal to the left kidney.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Exploratory laparotomy was performed when the cat was showing estrous behavior. Tissues at the right and left ovarian pedicles and the uterine stump appeared grossly normal but were excised and submitted for histologic examination. Two small nodules associated with the omentum were removed, and histologic examination results for one of these nodules indicated ovarian tissue with secondary and graafian follicles. Clinical signs of estrus resolved after surgery, and hormonal assay results were within ranges expected for an ovariectomized cat.
To the authors’ knowledge, the present case represented the first clinical report of ovarian remnant syndrome in a cat or dog in which persistent ovarian tissue was not found at the site of an ovarian pedicle. Our findings emphasized the importance of exploring the entire abdominal cavity when evaluating a patient for possible ovarian remnant tissue and confirming the excision of ovarian remnant tissue by histologic assessment.
Objective—To report the complication rate for a commonly performed procedure (lateral fabellotibial suture [LFS]) used in the treatment of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) injury.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—305 dogs evaluated for 363 incidents of CCL injury from January 1997 through December 2005 and treated with LFS.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on breed, sex, age, body weight, clinical history, duration of surgery and anesthesia, primary surgeon, percentage of ligament tear, condition of medial meniscus, unilateral versus bilateral disease, implant material, duration of follow-up, and perioperative and postoperative complications.
Results—363 LFS procedures met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Complications (n = 65) were recorded for 63 of the 363 (17.4%) surgical procedures. Multiple complications developed in 2 dogs. In 26 (7.2%) dogs, a second surgery was required to manage the complications. Breed, side on which surgery was performed, implant material, percentage ligament tear, meniscal condition and treatment, bandage use, perioperative antimicrobial use, and experience of surgeon did not influence the complication rate. Factors significantly associated with a higher rate of complications were high body weight and young age of dog at the time of surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LFS is associated with a lower perioperative and postoperative complication rate than has been reported for other surgical procedures to repair CCL injury. Heavier and younger dogs had more complications. Complication rate must be considered when choosing a surgical treatment for dogs with CCL injury.
Objective—To predict effectiveness of 3 interventional methods of population control for feral cat colonies.
Sample—Estimates of vital data for feral cats.
Procedures—Data were gathered from the literature regarding the demography and mating behavior of feral cats. An individual-based stochastic simulation model was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of trap-neuter-release (TNR), lethal control, and trap-vasectomy-hysterectomy-release (TVHR) in decreasing the size of feral cat populations.
Results—TVHR outperformed both TNR and lethal control at all annual capture probabilities between 10% and 90%. Unless > 57% of cats were captured and neutered annually by TNR or removed by lethal control, there was minimal effect on population size. In contrast, with an annual capture rate of ≥ 35%, TVHR caused population size to decrease. An annual capture rate of 57% eliminated the modeled population in 4,000 days by use of TVHR, whereas > 82% was required for both TNR and lethal control. When the effect of fraction of adult cats neutered on kitten and young juvenile survival rate was included in the analysis, TNR performed progressively worse and could be counterproductive, such that population size increased, compared with no intervention at all.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—TVHR should be preferred over TNR for management of feral cats if decrease in population size is the goal. This model allowed for many factors related to the trapping program and cats to be varied and should be useful for determining the financial and person-effort commitments required to have a desired effect on a given feral cat population.
To compare liposome-encapsulated bupivacaine (LEB) and (nonliposomal) 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.5BH) for control of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).
33 client-owned dogs.
In a randomized clinical trial, dogs undergoing TPLO received LEB (5.3 mg/kg [2.4 mg/lb]) or 0.5BH (1.5 mg/kg [0.68 mg/lb]) by periarticular soft tissue injection. All dogs received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], SC, q 12 h) beginning at extubation. Signs of pain were assessed at extubation and predetermined times up to 48 hours later with the Colorado State University-Canine Acute Pain Scale and Glasgow Composite Pain Scale-Short Form. A pressure nociceptive threshold device was used at the affected stifle joint before surgery and at 5 postoperative time points. Methadone (0.1 mg/kg [0.05 mg/lb], IV) was administered if the Colorado State University pain scale score was ≥ 2 (scale, 0 to 4). Surgical variables; pain scores; pressure nociceptive thresholds; times to first administration of rescue analgesic, first walk, and first meal consumption; and total opioid administration were compared between treatment groups.
28 dogs completed the study. Dogs administered LEB were less likely to require rescue analgesia and received lower amounts of opioids than dogs administered 0.5BH. There were no significant intergroup differences in other measured variables.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The LEB appeared to provide adequate analgesia after TPLO with lower requirements for opioid treatments, which may allow dogs to be discharged from the hospital earlier than with traditional pain management strategies.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare surface and cross-sectional structure as well as localized electrochemical corrosion and ion release for cast stainless steel (SS) tibia plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) plates retrieved from dogs with and without osteosarcoma (OSA) and to compare these findings with similar variables for forged SS TPLO plates retrieved from dogs.
SAMPLE 47 TPLO plates explanted from 45 client-owned dogs (22 cast plates from dogs with OSA, 22 cast plates from dogs without OSA, and 3 forged plates from dogs without OSA).
PROCEDURES Histologic evaluations of tissue samples collected from implant sites at the time of plate retrieval were performed to confirm implant site tumor status of each dog. Surfaces and metallographic cross sections of retrieved plates were examined, and the microcell technique was used to obtain local electrochemical corrosion and ion release measurements.
RESULTS Findings indicated that all cast SS plates demonstrated high spatial variability of their electrochemical surface properties and inhomogeneous superficial and cross-sectional composition, compared with forged plates. Greater metal ion release was observed in cast plates than in forged plates and in cast plates from dogs with OSA than in cast or forged from dogs without OSA.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that accumulation of metal ions from implants could be a trigger for neoplastic transformation in neighboring cells. Metal ion release caused by corrosion of implants that do not comply with recommended standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials International or the International Organization for Standardization could potentially place patients at increased risk of tumor development.
Objective—To determine the material properties of Slocum TPLO plates and assess the soft tissue reaction adjacent to these plates in dogs that had undergone tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).
Sample Population—3 new TPLO plates, 8 retrieved TPLO plates, and 1 new Synthes dynamic compression plate.
Procedures—Metallurgic analyses were performed. Tissue samples were obtained from areas adjacent to retrieved plates and submitted for histologic examination.
Results—All of the TPLO plates had a 2-phase microstructure consisting of austenite and ferrite in various amounts. Residua, inclusions, and cavities were seen during microscopic examination of the plate surface. The major differences between new and retrieved TPLO plates were the presence of small gaps separating many inclusions from the surrounding matrix and the presence of various-sized pits on the surface of the retrieved plates. The dynamic compression plate had a nearly pure austenitic structure and was largely free from residua, inclusions, and cavities. Histologic examination of tissue samples obtained from areas adjacent to retrieved TPLO plates revealed intra- and extracellular particulate debris. Two types of particles (one consisting of chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and iron and the other consisting of aluminum and silicon) were seen.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results determined that new and retrieved TPLO plates were manufactured from 316L stainless steel and produced by a casting process, but not all plates met specifications for chemical composition of cast surgical implants (American Society for Testing Materials standard F745); tissues surrounding retrieved plates had evidence of adverse reactions, probably as a result of plate corrosion.