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Twenty-nine field isolates of porcine Pasteurella multocida were characterized for their capsular and somatic types and were evaluated for their susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents. Plasmid dna-screening experiments were conducted to determine whether a relationship existed between the presence of plasmids and antibiotic resistance. Field isolates of P multocida were susceptible to most of the antimicrobials tested, but all isolates were resistant to clindamycin. Eleven isolates of serogroup D were resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobial agents. Resistance to sulfonamides and streptomycin was observed in 7 isolates. These isolates contained R plasmids conferring resistance to streptomycin and sulfonamides. The R plasmids belonged to 2 groups, one of 5.6 kilobase and the other of 5.9 kilobase. Restriction endonuclease mapping and dna hybridization revealed that these R plasmids were related to RSF1010 from Salmonella panama, which also confers resistance to streptomycin and sulfonamides.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Eighteen random-bred cats with a total of 19 nasal or aural squamous cell carcinomas were treated with photodynamic therapy, using aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfhonate as the photosensitizer. Cats were irradiated at power densities of 100 mW/cm2 and energy densities of 100 J/cm2. Successful outcome was obtained in 10 tumors after 1 treatment, and 2 more tumors had complete responses after 1 or 2 additional treatments. Treatments were more effective in tumors of stage T2 or earlier. Five tumors had partial responses, and the response of 2 tumors could not be evaluated. The treatment was safe and well tolerated by most cats, although we found that cats should be kept out of sunlight for 2 weeks after treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Seroprevalence of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae serotype-1 infection was evaluated in pigs on 7 farms in Quebec. Commercial cross-bred herds A to G, ranging from 110 to 235 sows and infected with A pleuropneumoniae serotype-1 were selected. Five pigs/litter were selected at random and were identified (group 1). Blood samples were obtained from group-1 pigs at 2 to 4, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days of age. Blood also was obtained from group-1 pigs remaining in the postweaning unit at 70 days of age, and from 20 to 40 sows 1 to 3 times.

To determine prevalence of seropositive pigs in all age groups for the entire study period in herds C to G, blood samples were obtained from 20 pigs/age group (group 2) selected at random at 28, 42, and 56 days of age at each visit. Group-1 pigs were included when they reached 28, 42, and 56 days of age. Pigs were serologically monitored in herds A and B for 3 months and in herds C to G for 5 to 6 months.

Serologic status of pigs at 2 to 4 days of age was not statistically associated with status at 42 days (P = 0.6293) and at 56 days (P = 0.3098) of age for the same pigs. Therefore, seronegative pigs 2 to 4 days old did not seroconvert earlier than did those with detectable maternal antibodies at 2 to 4 days old. Only about 50% of the 70-day-old pigs were seropositive at 56 days. Seemingly, pigs seroconverted late in the postweaning period.

Prevalence of seropositive 42- and 56-day-old pigs varied among and within herds over a short period. The prevalence of A pleuropneumoniae infection in the adult population was not related to the prevalence of the infection in weaned pigs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of neuroaxonal dystrophy in Quarter Horses (QHs) on a single farm.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—148 horses.

Procedures—Neurologic, pathological, and toxicological evaluations were completed in selected neurologically affected horses over a 2-year period. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed.

Results—87 QHs and 1 QH-crossbred horse were affected. Most (50/88 [56.8%]) affected horses were 1 to 2 years old (median age, 2 years [range, 2 months to 34 years]). Neurologic deficits included obtundation (53/88 [60%] horses), decreased to absent menace response (33/88 [37.5%]), proprioceptive positioning deficits, wide-based stance, ataxia, and dysmetria (88/88 [100%]). Most (78/88 [88.6%]) horses had mild ataxia, but some (10/88 [11.4%]) had moderate to severe ataxia. Low serum concentrations of vitamin E (≤ 2 mg/L) were detected in 3 index case horses and 16 of 17 randomly selected horses (13/14 affected and 3/3 unaffected) during study year 1. Dietary vitamin E supplementation did not improve neurologic deficits in affected horses; vitamin E administration in pregnant mares appeared to decrease but not prevent disease development among offspring born the following year. Lesions detected at necropsy included bilaterally symmetric neuroaxonal degeneration with axonal spheroids in the nucleus gracilis, nucleus cuneatus medialis, nucleus cuneatus lateralis, and nucleus thoracicus (5/5 horses).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neuroaxonal dystrophy should be considered in evaluation of young horses with ataxia and proprioceptive positioning deficits. Vitamin E deficiency may contribute to disease severity.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association