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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effects of short-term dietary supplementation with vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) on indicators of vitamin D status in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

13 purpose-bred adult dogs.

PROCEDURES

20 extruded commercial dog foods were assayed for 25(OH)D3 content. Six dogs received a custom diet containing low vitamin D concentrations and consumed a treat with vitamin D2 (0.33 μg/kg0.75) plus 1 of 3 doses of 25(OH)D3 (0, 0.23, or 0.46 μg/kg0.75) once daily for 8 weeks followed by the alternate treatments in a crossover-design trial. In another crossover-design trial, 7 dogs received a custom diet supplemented with vitamin D3 or 25(OH)D3 (targeted content, 3,250 U/kg [equivalent to 81.3 μg/kg] and 16 μg/kg, respectively, as fed) for 10 weeks followed by the alternate treatment. In washout periods before each trial and between dietary treatments in the second trial, dogs received the trial diet without D-vitamer supplements. Dietary intake was monitored. Serum or plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and biochemical variables were analyzed at predetermined times.

RESULTS

25(OH)D3 concentrations were low or undetected in evaluated commercial diets. In the first trial, vitamin D2 intake resulted in quantifiable circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 but not 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2. Circulating 25(OH)D3 concentration appeared to increase linearly with 25(OH)D3 dose. In the second trial, circulating 25(OH)D3 concentration increased with both D vitamer–supplemented diets and did not differ significantly between treatments. No evidence of vitamin D excess was detected in either trial.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Potency of the dietary 25(OH)D3 supplement estimated on the basis of targeted content was 5 times that of vitamin D3 to increase indicators of vita-min D status in the study sample. No adverse effects attributed to treatment were observed in short-term feeding trials. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:722–736)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the safety and efficacy of preoperative administration of meloxicam with that of ketoprofen and butorphanol in dogs undergoing abdominal surgery.

Animals—36 dogs undergoing laparotomy, splenectomy, or cystotomy.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. In the first part of the study, dogs were given a single dose of meloxicam, ketoprofen, or a placebo, and buccal mucosal bleeding times were measured. In the second part of the study, dogs were given meloxicam, ketoprofen, or butorphanol prior to surgery. Dogs in the butorphanol group received a second dose immediately after surgery. Pain scores (1 to 10) were assigned hourly for 20 hours after surgery and used to determine an overall efficacy score for each dog. Dogs with a pain score ≥ 3 were given oxymorphone for pain. Dogs were euthanatized 8 days after surgery, and gross and histologic examinations of the liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract were conducted.

Results—Overall efficacy was rated as good or excellent in 9 of the 12 dogs that received meloxicam, compared with 9 of the 12 dogs that received ketoprofen and only 1 of the 12 dogs that received butorphanol. No clinically important hematologic, biochemical, or pathologic abnormalities were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that preoperative administration of meloxicam is a safe and effective method of controlling postoperative pain for 20 hours in dogs undergoing abdominal surgery; the analgesic effects of meloxicam were comparable to those of ketoprofen and superior to those of butorphanol. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:882–888)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate feasibility of performing laparoscopic-assisted placement of a jejunostomy feeding tube (J-tube) and compare complications associated with placement, short-term feedings, and medium-term healing with surgically placed tubes in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—15 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly allocated to undergo open surgical or laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement. Required nutrients were administered by a combination of enteric and oral feeding while monitoring for complications. Radiographic contrast studies documented tube direction and location, altered motility, or evidence of stricture.

Results—Jejunostomy tubes were successfully placed in the correct location and direction in all dogs. In the laparoscopic group, the ileum was initially selected in 2 dogs, 2 dogs developed moderate hemorrhage at a portal site, and 2 J-tubes kinked during placement but were successfully readjusted postoperatively. All dogs tolerated postoperative feedings. All dogs developed minor ostomy site inflammation, and 1 dog developed bile-induced dermatitis at the ostomy site. Despite mild, transient neutrophilia, no significant difference was noted in WBC counts between groups. No dog had altered gastric motility or evidence of stricture, although the jejunopexy site remained identifiable in several dogs at 30 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Requirements for successful J-tube placement were met by use of a laparoscopic-assisted technique, and postoperative complications were mild and comparable to those seen with surgical placement. Laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement compares favorably to surgical placement in healthy dogs and should be considered as an option for dogs requiring enterostomy feeding but not requiring a celiotomy for other reasons. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:65–71)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted for evaluation of a progressive gait disturbance characterized by tetraparesis and general proprioceptive ataxia in all limbs.

Clinical Findings—Neurologic examination suggested a dysfunction of the C6-T2 spinal cord segments, which was slightly worse on the right side. Discomfort was suspected upon lateral flexion of the neck. Two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at a 3-week interval revealed an intramedullary fluid-filled cavitary lesion adjacent to C7, containing a blood clot.

Treatment and Outcome—Following unsuccessful initial conservative management, surgical marsupialization of the lesion was performed through a dorsal laminectomy, durotomy, and myelotomy at C6 and C7. Histologic evaluation including immunohistochemistry was diagnostic for a vascular anomaly. Initially, the dog was nonambulatory with tetraparesis and became tetraplegic after surgery; movement was regained 6 days later. Four weeks after the procedure, the dog was able to walk unassisted. One year after surgery, the dog was actively running and jumping, with mild residual ataxia in the pelvic limbs.

Clinical Relevance—The intramedullary vascular anomaly in this dog was successfully treated with a surgical marsupialization technique. The combination of MRI, histologic eval-uation, and immunohistochemistry enabled lesion localization, evaluation of cavity content, and final diagnosis.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 13-year-old neutered female Keeshond-cross was evaluated because of a history of melena, anemia, hematemesis, vomiting, and high serum liver enzyme activities over a 1.5-year period.

Clinical Findings—Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a hyperechoic mass in the gallbladder. In the gallbladder mass itself, a distinct linear blood flow pattern was detected by use of color flow Doppler ultrasonography.

Treatment and Outcome—A cholecystectomy was performed, and clinical signs resolved. Samples of the mass were examined histologically and immunohistochemically, and findings supported a diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor of the gallbladder.

Clinical Relevance—Tumors of the biliary tree are a potential source of blood loss into the gastrointestinal tract. Color flow Doppler ultrasonography in conjunction with conventional grayscale ultrasonography may be useful in evaluation of the gallbladder in dogs. When echogenic material is detected in the gallbladder, it is important to evaluate the region for blood flow.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of repeated use and resterilization on structural and functional integrity of microwave ablation (MWA) antennas.

SAMPLE 17 cooled-shaft MWA antennas (3 groups of 5 antennas/group and 2 control antennas).

PROCEDURES 1, 2, and 3 ablations in the livers of bovine cadavers were performed at the maximum recommended settings. Antennas were cleaned and sterilized in hydrogen peroxide plasma, and the process was repeated (reprocessing cycle; n = 6). Control antennas were only sterilized (6 times). Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed, and antennas were microscopically assessed for damage.

RESULTS 6 cycles were completed. Thirteen of 15 MWA antennas remained functional for up to 4 cycles, 10 were functional after 5 cycles, and only 7 were functional after 6 cycles. Progressive tearing of the silicone coating of the antennas was observed, with a negative effect of the number of cycles for silicone tearing. Size of the ablation zone decreased mildly over time after cycles 5 and 6; however, this was not considered clinically relevant. No significant changes in the shape of ablation zones were detected. All cultures yielded negative results, except for an isolated case, which was considered a contaminant.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Structural and functional integrity of the microwave antennas remained acceptable during repeated use and reprocessing for up to 4 cycles. However, there was a decrease in functional integrity at cycles 5 and 6. We suggest that these microwave antennas be subjected to > 3 reprocessing cycles. Antennas should be carefully examined before reuse.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine accuracy, intermethod agreement, and inter-reviewer agreement for multisequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2-view orthogonal myelography in small-breed dogs with first-time intervertebral disk (IVD) extrusion.

Design—Prospective evaluation study.

Animals—24 dogs with thoracolumbar IVD extrusion.

Procedures—Each dog underwent MRI and myelography. Images obtained with each modality were independently evaluated and assigned standardized scores in a blinded manner by 3 reviewers. Results were compared with surgical findings. Inter-reviewer and intermethod agreements were assessed via κ statistics. Accuracy was assessed as the percentage of dogs for which ≥ 2 of 3 reviewers recorded findings identical to those determined surgically.

Results—Inter-reviewer agreement was substantial for site (κ = 0.70) and side of IVD extrusion (κ = 0.62) in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and was substantial for site (κ = 0.72) and fair for side of extrusion (κ = 0.37) in myelographic images. Agreement for site between each modality and surgical findings was near perfect (κ = 0.94 and 0.88 for MRI and myelography, respectively). Intermethod agreement was substantial for site (κ = 0.71) and moderate for side of extrusion (κ = 0.40). Accuracy of MRI for site and side was 100% when results for T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences were combined. Accuracy of myelography was 90.9% and 54.5% for site and side, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between imaging results and surgical findings for identification of IVD extrusion sites in small-breed dogs was similar for MRI and myelography. However, MRI appeared to be more accurate than myelography and allowed evaluation of extradural compressive mass composition.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of pneumoperitoneum created with warmed humidified CO2 (WHCO2) during laparoscopy on core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, systemic inflammation, peritoneal response, and signs of postoperative pain in healthy mature dogs.

ANIMALS 6 mature purpose-bred dogs.

PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, each dog was anesthetized twice, and pneumoperitoneum was created with standard-temperature CO2 (STCO2; 22°C and 0% relative humidity) and WHCO2 (37°C and 98% relative humidity). Data were collected during each procedure, including core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, and inflammatory biomarkers. Peritoneal biopsy specimens were collected and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Dogs were assessed for signs of postoperative pain.

RESULTS Mean core body temperature was significantly lower (35.2°C; 95% confidence interval, 34.5° to 35.8°C) with WHCO2 than with STCO2 (35.9°C; 95% confidence interval, 35.3° to 36.6°C) across all time points. Cardiac index increased during the procedure for both treatments but was not significantly different between treatments. Thromboelastography variables did not differ significantly between treatments as indicated by the coagulation index. Subjective evaluation of peritoneal biopsy specimens revealed mesothelial cell loss with STCO2. There was no significant difference in circulating C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 concentrations. There was a significant increase in the number of postoperative pain scores > 0 for the WHCO2 treatment versus the STCO2 treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Analysis of these data suggested that effects on evaluated variables attributable to the use of WHCO2 for creating pneumoperitoneum in healthy mature dogs undergoing laparoscopy did not differ from effects for the use of STCO2.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research