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  • Author or Editor: Robert E. Truax x
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Abstract

Objective—To identify cytocidal viruses and Pasteurella spp that could be isolated from cattle involved in 2 natural outbreaks of shipping fever.

Design—105 and 120 castrated male 4- to 8-monthold feedlot cattle involved in 1997 and 1998 outbreaks, respectively.

Animals—Nasal swab specimens and blood samples were collected, and cattle were vaccinated on arrival at an order-buyer barn from 4 local auction houses. Four days later, they were transported to a feedlot, and additional nasal swab specimens and blood samples were collected. Nasal swab specimens were submitted for virus isolation and bacterial culture; blood samples were submitted for measurement of respiratory bovine coronavirus (RBCV) hemagglutinin inhibition titers.

Results—93 of 105 cattle and 106 of 120 cattle developed signs of respiratory tract disease during 1997 and 1998, respectively, and RBCV was isolated from 81 and 89 sick cattle, respectively, while at the orderbuyer's barn or the day after arrival at the feedlot. During the 1997 outbreak, bovine herpesvirus 1 was isolated from 2 cattle at the order-buyer's barn and from 5 cattle 7 and 14 days after arrival at the feedlot, and parainfluenza virus 3 was isolated from 4 cattle 14 days after arrival at the feedlot. During the 1998 outbreak, bovine herpesvirus 1 was isolated from 2 cattle at the order-buyer's barn and on arrival at the feedlot and from 5 cattle 7 and 14 days after arrival at the feedlot, and parainfluenza virus 3 was isolated from 1 animal the day of, and from 18 cattle 7 and 14 days after, arrival at the feedlot. Pasteurella spp was cultured from 4 and 6 cattle at the order-buyer's barn and from 92 and 72 cattle on arrival at the feedlot during the 1997 and 1998 outbreaks, respectively.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that RBCV may play a causative role in outbreaks of shipping fever in cattle. More than 80% of the sick cattle shed RBCV at the beginning of 2 outbreaks when the Pasteurella spp infection rate was low. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1599–1604)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A simple cryogenic technique for preserving bovine buffy coat leukocytes was developed. This was coupled with a variation of the standard discontinuous gradient technique to purify mononuclear cells that retained immunologic function. The total number of mononuclear cells recovered from cyropreserved samples were only 87 to 42% of those recovered from freshly obtained blood samples. However, the functional capabilities of mononuclear cells from cyopreserved buffy coat preparations were retained. Polyclonal proliferative responses to 3 mitogens were measured, using a titration of mitogen concentrations, and were found to be normal, compared with those of cells isolated from fresh blood. Blood samples collected after vaccination with Brucella abortus contained leukocytes that responded to irradiated B abortus. These antigen-specific responses were also retained through cyopreservation. Cell surface expression of T-lymphocyte antigens, CD2, CD4, and CD8, and cell-surface IgM on B lymphocytes was also evaluated. Flow cytometric analysis of fresh and cryopreserved mononuclear cell preparations indicated that the relative proportions of different subpopulations were not altered. The technical simplicity of our cryopreservation system will allow processing of large numbers of samples with the ability to assay various immune functions at a later time.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research