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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A semiquantitative heartworm test of antigen concentration was evaluated as a predictor of thromboembolism after adulticide treatment. Seventeen dogs with naturally acquired infections of Dirofilaria immitis (heartworms) were studied before and after thiacetarsamide treatment, using physical examinations, arterial blood gas analyses, thoracic radiography, and pulmonary hemodynamic and arteriographic tests. Eight dogs were considered to have a low burden of heartworms and 9 had a high burden. Dogs with a high worm burden had more severe pulmonary thromboembolism with pulmonary hypertension, dilated pulmonary arteries, flow obstruction of the caudal pulmonary arteries, and parenchymal lesions in the caudal lung lobes. Dogs with a low worm burden had minimal changes. Within each group of dogs, the severity of thromboembolism was less in some dogs in which all heartworms were not killed. Six of the 9 dogs with a high burden of heartworms had surviving heartworms, and 1 of these dogs had 38 live heartworms. Only 4 of the 8 dogs with a low worm burden had complete heartworm mortality, but only 1 dog had more than 3 surviving heartworms. We concluded that dogs with a high worm burden were more likely to have pulmonary thromboembolism after thiacetarsamide treatment and that dogs with a low worm burden were more likely to have minimal changes. A semiquantitative heartworm test of antigen concentration is recommended as part of the pretreatment evaluation of dogs infected with heartworms.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The severity of pulmonary thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension induced by heartworms dying after administration of 2 adulticides was evaluated. Because melarsomine dihydrochloride (RM340) has been shown to be more effective in killing Dirofilaria immitis (heartworms) than the traditional approved adulticide, thiacetarsamide, an attempt was made to determine whether this new adulticide induced more severe lung disease. Before adulticide treatment, 32 dogs with naturally acquired heartworm infections received physical examinations, semiquantitative antigen concentration tests, cbc, platelet counts, serum biochemistry analyses, arterial blood gas determinations, thoracic radiography, pulmonary arteriography, and pulmonary hemodynamic tests. Eight dogs with a low burden and 9 dogs with a high burden of heartworms were treated with thiacetarsamide, and 7 dogs with a low burden and 8 dogs with a high burden were treated with RM340. Except for the heartworm-burden test, tests were repeated at regular intervals during the first 7 weeks after treatment. None of the dogs coughed or had dyspnea after treatment. Six of 9 dogs with high worm burdens and 4 of 8 dogs with low worm burdens had surviving heartworms after thiacetarsamide treatment, in contrast to only 3 of 15 RM340-treated dogs. Differences between the 2 adulticide treatments were minimal as determined by thoracic radiography, pulmonary hemodynamic tests, clinical laboratory analyses, pulmonary arteriography, or necropsy. The RM340 treatment was a more effective adulticide, but it did not increase the severity of hypertension and thromboembolism.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Pemphigus antigens were localized, by use of immunoelectron microscopy, on canine keratinocytes in vivo on esophageal mucosa and in vitro on established cultured keratinocytes. Convalescent sera from a human being with pemphigus vulgaris and a human being with pemphigus foliaceus reacted with the interdesmosomal cytoplasmic keratinocyte membrane of canine esophagus. Cultured canine keratinocytes expressed the pemphigus vulgaris antigen in a similar pattern, but did not carry the pemphigus foliaceus antigen. The differential presencé of cell surface antigens and its relation to various forms of the disease are discussed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—Two geldings, aged 11 and 17 years, were examined for treatment of ureteroliths located approximately 10 cm proximal to the bladder.

Clinical Findings—Ureteral obstruction was an incidental finding in 1 horse that was referred because of urinary tract obstruction and a cystic calculus. This horse did not have clinical or laboratory evidence of renal failure, although severe hydronephrosis was evident on transabdominal ultrasonography. The second patient had a serum creatinine concentration of 6.3 mg/dL (reference range, 0.8 to 2.2 mg/dL) and mild hydronephrosis of the affected left kidney.

Treatment and Outcome—In both patients, the obstructed ureter was exteriorized through a flank incision as a standing procedure, and the calculus was crushed and removed with a uterine biopsy forceps introduced through a ureterotomy approximately 25 cm proximal to the calculus. The cystic calculus was removed through a perineal urethrostomy by lithotripsy, piecemeal extraction, and lavage. The horse without azotemia developed pyelonephritis in the affected kidney and was euthanatized because of complications of a nephrectomy 13 months later. In the horse with azotemia, the serum creatinine concentration decreased after surgery, and the horse returned to its intended use. However, it was euthanatized approximately 2 years after surgery because of progressive renal failure, and a large nephrolith was found in the previously unobstructed right kidney.

Clinical Relevance—The technique used for ureterolith removal was successful in both horses in this report, did not require sophisticated equipment, and could be effective in the early stages of ureteral obstruction as a means of restoring urine flow and renal function. The outcome in the horse with advanced unilateral renal disease without azotemia would suggest that nephrectomy should be considered as a treatment in such patients.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether photoreceptor outer segments can be found in aqueous humor from dogs with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD).

Design

Case series.

Animals

4 dogs with unilateral RRD, 2 dogs with bilateral RRD, 1 dog with unilateral non-RRD, and 1 dog with glaucoma without retinal detachment.

Procedure

Aqueous humor samples were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde and examined by means of transmission electron microscopy.

Results

Outer segments were found in aqueous humor from 7 of 8 eyes with RRD but were not found in aqueous humor from dogs with non-RRD or glaucoma.

Clinical Implications

Photoreceptor outer segments may move into the anterior chamber of eyes with RRD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1254–1256)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine and correlate subchondral bone mineral density and overlying cartilage structure and tensile integrity in mature healthy equine stifle (low magnitude loading) and metacarpophalangeal (high magnitude loading) joints.

Animals—8 healthy horses, 2 to 3 years of age.

Procedure—Osteochondral samples were acquired from the medial femoral condyle (FC) and medial trochlear ridge (TR) of the stifle joint and from the dorsal (MC3D) and palmar (MC3P) aspects of the distal medial third metacarpal condyles of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Articular cartilage surface fibrillation (evaluated via India ink staining) and tensile biomechanical properties were determined. The volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) of the underlying subchondral plate was assessed via dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry.

Results—Cartilage staining (fibrillation), tensile moduli, tensile strength, and vBMD were greater in the MC3D and MC3P locations, compared with the FC and TR locations, whereas tensile strain at failure was less in MC3D and MC3P locations than FC and TR locations. Cartilage tensile moduli correlated positively with vBMD, whereas cartilage staining and tensile strain at failure correlated negatively with vBMD.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In areas of high joint loading, the subchondral bone had high vBMD and the articular cartilage surface layer had high tensile stiffness but signs of structural wear (fibrillation and low failure strain). The site-dependent variations and relationships in this study support the concept that articular cartilage and subchondral bone normally adapt to physiologic loading in a coordinated way. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1823–1829)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of prosthetic laryngoplasty on return to racing, performance index, and career longevity in racing Quarter Horses with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) and to evaluate performance variables for horses with RLN undergoing prosthetic laryngoplasty, compared with a control horse population.

DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 162 racing Quarter Horses with RLN treated with prosthetic laryngoplasty (case horses) and 324 racing Quarter Horse without RLN (control horses).

PROCEDURES Medical and race records of case and control horses examined at 5 referral centers between January 2000 and December 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Two control horses were matched with each case horse. Return to racing, earnings, number of racing starts, performance index, and career longevity were evaluated.

RESULTS The odds of returning to racing did not differ significantly between case and control horses but decreased with increasing age. Neither racing starts nor career longevity were affected by prosthetic laryngoplasty or by RLN grade. In fact, horses undergoing laryngoplasty for treatment of RLN and horses with the lowest RLN grade before surgery had higher performance indices after the surgery, compared with indices for control horses.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The faster speeds and shorter distances raced with Quarter Horses could alter how RLN impacts respiratory variables and performance in Quarter Horses, compared with other racehorse breeds. Further study is needed to understand the impacts of RLN and surgical treatments for RLN in racing Quarter Horses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association