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  • Author or Editor: Robert E. Briggs x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of intranasal exposure to live leukotoxin (LktA)-deficient Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) at the time of feedyard arrival on nasopharyngeal colonization by wildtype MH in calves.

Animals—200 calves.

Procedure—Calves from Arkansas (AR calves; n = 100; mean body weight, 205 kg) were purchased from an order buyer barn. Calves from New Mexico (NM calves; n = 100; mean body weight, 188 kg) were obtained from a single ranch. Calves were transported to a feedyard, where half of each group was exposed intranasally with LktA-deficient MH at the time of arrival. Calves were observed daily for respiratory tract disease (RTD), and nasal swab specimens were collected periodically to determine nasopharyngeal colonization status with MH. Serum samples were assayed for antibodies to MH.

Results—15 AR calves had nasopharyngeal colonization by wild-type MH at the order buyer barn, whereas none of the NM calves had nasopharyngeal colonization. Intranasal exposure to LktA-deficient MH elicited an increase in serum antibody titers against MH in NM calves, but titers were less in NM calves treated for RTD. Exposure of NM calves to LktA-deficient MH offered protection from nasopharyngeal colonization by wild-type MH.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure of calves to LktA-deficient MH elicited an increase in serum antibody titers against MH and decreased colonization of the nasopharynx by wild-type MH. Earlier exposure would likely allow an immune response to develop before transportation and offer protection from nasopharyngeal colonization and pneumonia caused by wild-type MH. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:580–585)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of tilmicosin treatment on number of Pasteurella haemolytica (PH) organisms in nasal secretion specimens of calves with respiratory tract disease.

Animals—206 British mixed-breed beef calves, 2 to 5 months old.

Procedure—In 2 separate studies of outbreaks, calves (study 1, n = 101; study 2, n = 105) that developed respiratory tract disease after transport to a feedlot were treated with tilmicosin. Nasal secretion specimens were examined for PH organisms to determine the status of colonization.

Results—In both studies, PH serotypes A1 and A6 were isolated. In study 1, tilmicosin treatment eliminated or markedly reduced the number of PH organisms in calves on days 1, 4, and 5 after treatment. In study 2, tilmicosin treatment eliminated PH organisms in calves on days 1, 2, 5, and 6 after treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Overall, tilmicosin treatment increased the number of culture-positive calves that became culture-negative and decreased the number of culture-negative calves that became culture-positive for up to 6 days after treatment. Tilmicosin treatment decreased the number of PH organisms in nasal secretion specimens, which indicated that fewer PH organisms were available to infect the lungs or to infect other calves. By reducing colonization, prophylactic use of tilmicosin before transport or at the time of arrival at a feedlot is likely to reduce the incidence of acute respiratory tract disease in calves for the initial several days after arrival, which is the period when they are most susceptible to infectious organisms. ( Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 525–529)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether increased conglutinin titers are evident in stressed calves that do not develop respiratory tract disease in feedlots,compared with respiratory tract disease, and to determine the increase in immunoconglutinin titers.

Animals—101 mixed-breed beef calves.

Procedure—Calves were processed at 4 farms of origin and allowed to remain with their dams for another 100 days. Calves from each farm were brought to a centrally located order-buyer barn. In a feedlot, 101 calves were assigned to pens and observed daily for clinical signs of acute respiratory tract disease. When sick calves were detected, they were treated with antibiotics and isolated in a pen for 4 days. Conglutinin and immunoconglutinin titers were determined for all calves.

Results—During the 28-day study, 73 calves developed respiratory tract disease, whereas 28 calves remained healthy. Mean conglutinin titers differed significantly among calves from the 4 farms. Significant differences were not detected in conglutinin titers among calves on the basis of sex, morbidity, or vaccination status against Mannheimia haemolytica at each farm, the order-buyer barn, or the feedlot on days 8, 15, and 28 after arrival. Immunoconglutinin titers in calves differed significantly among farms and morbidity status.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Mean conglutinin titers in calves do not appear to be associated with the incidence of acute respiratory tract disease; however, increased immunoconglutinin titers appear to be associated with recovery of stressed calves from respiratory tract disease during the first 15 days after arrival in a feedlot. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1403–1409)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of vaccination prior to transit and prophylactic administration of florfenicol at time of arrival at a feedyard on health of cattle and colonization of the nasopharynx by Mannheimia haemolytica (MH).

Animals—121 steers from Tennessee and 84 steers from New Mexico.

Procedure—Half of the steers were vaccinated before transport to a feedyard. Steers from Tennessee were vaccinated with MH bacterin-toxoid, and steers from New Mexico were vaccinated intranasally with modified-live leukotoxin-deficient MH. Half of the vaccinates and nonvaccinates were randomly selected to receive florfenicol on arrival at the feedyard. Steers were observed daily for respiratory tract disease (RTD).

Results—Administration of florfenicol at time of arrival reduced the incidence of RTD, delayed the interval before onset of RTD, and reduced the incidence of MH colonization of the nasopharynx for at least 4 days, but vaccination did not have any effect. Vaccination elicited an increase in serum antibody titers to MH. Administration of florfenicol at time of arrival reduced the development of serum antibody titers in intranasally vaccinated steers and both groups of nonvaccinated steers, but intranasal vaccination did not affect colonization by wild-type MH.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of florfenicol at time of arrival decreased the incidence of MH organisms in the nasopharynx and delayed the onset of RTD. Prophylactic use of suitable antibiotics is likely to reduce the incidence of acute RTD in calves for several days after arrival at feedyards, which is the period when they are most susceptible to infectious organisms. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:251–256)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify cytocidal viruses and Pasteurella spp that could be isolated from cattle involved in 2 natural outbreaks of shipping fever.

Design—105 and 120 castrated male 4- to 8-monthold feedlot cattle involved in 1997 and 1998 outbreaks, respectively.

Animals—Nasal swab specimens and blood samples were collected, and cattle were vaccinated on arrival at an order-buyer barn from 4 local auction houses. Four days later, they were transported to a feedlot, and additional nasal swab specimens and blood samples were collected. Nasal swab specimens were submitted for virus isolation and bacterial culture; blood samples were submitted for measurement of respiratory bovine coronavirus (RBCV) hemagglutinin inhibition titers.

Results—93 of 105 cattle and 106 of 120 cattle developed signs of respiratory tract disease during 1997 and 1998, respectively, and RBCV was isolated from 81 and 89 sick cattle, respectively, while at the orderbuyer's barn or the day after arrival at the feedlot. During the 1997 outbreak, bovine herpesvirus 1 was isolated from 2 cattle at the order-buyer's barn and from 5 cattle 7 and 14 days after arrival at the feedlot, and parainfluenza virus 3 was isolated from 4 cattle 14 days after arrival at the feedlot. During the 1998 outbreak, bovine herpesvirus 1 was isolated from 2 cattle at the order-buyer's barn and on arrival at the feedlot and from 5 cattle 7 and 14 days after arrival at the feedlot, and parainfluenza virus 3 was isolated from 1 animal the day of, and from 18 cattle 7 and 14 days after, arrival at the feedlot. Pasteurella spp was cultured from 4 and 6 cattle at the order-buyer's barn and from 92 and 72 cattle on arrival at the feedlot during the 1997 and 1998 outbreaks, respectively.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that RBCV may play a causative role in outbreaks of shipping fever in cattle. More than 80% of the sick cattle shed RBCV at the beginning of 2 outbreaks when the Pasteurella spp infection rate was low. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1599–1604)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare shedding patterns and serologic responses to bovine coronavirus (BCV) in feedlot calves shipped from a single ranch in New Mexico (NM calves) versus calves assembled from local sale barns in Arkansas (AR calves) and to evaluate the role of BCV on disease and performance.

Animals—103 feedlot calves from New Mexico and 100 from Arkansas.

Procedures—Calves were studied from before shipping to 35 days after arrival at the feedlot. Nasal swab specimens, fecal samples, and serum samples were obtained before shipping, at arrival, and periodically thereafter. Bovine coronavirus antigen and antibodies were detected by use of an ELISA.

Results—NM calves had a high geometric mean titer for BCV antibody at arrival (GMT, 1,928); only 2% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 1% in feces. In contrast, AR calves had low antibody titers against BCV at arrival (GMT, 102) and 64% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 65% in feces. Detection of BCV in nasal secretions preceded detection in feces before shipping AR calves, but at arrival, 73% of AR calves were shedding BCV in nasal secretions and feces. Bovine coronavirus infection was significantly associated with respiratory tract disease and decreased growth performance in AR calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Replication and shedding of BCV may start in the upper respiratory tract and spread to the gastrointestinal tract. Vaccination of calves against BCV before shipping to feedlots may provide protection against BCV infection and its effects with other pathogens in the induction of respiratory tract disease.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To detect bovine adenovirus serotype 7 (BAV-7) infections in calves by use of viral isolation and serologic testing.

Animals—205 postweaning calves.

Procedure—121 calves were assembled by an order buyer through auction markets in eastern Tennessee and transported to New Mexico where they were commingled with 84 healthy ranch-reared calves. Tests included viral isolation in cell culture from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and detection of serum BAV-7 antibodies by use of microtitration viral neutralization.

Results —BAV-7 was isolated from PBL of 8 calves and seroconversion to BAV-7 was detected for 38 of 199 (19.1%) calves. Concurrent bovine viral diarrhea virus infections were detected in most calves from which BAV-7 was isolated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance —Results of our study indicate that BAV-7 infections can be found in postweaning commingled calves and may develop more commonly in calves with concurrent infections with viruses such as bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:976–978).

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research