The efficacy of paste and granule formulations of pyrantel pamoate against concurrent infections of Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in cats was examined in a controlled trial. Three groups of 8 cats received either no medication (controls) or pyrantel pamoate in paste or granule formulations at a dosage of 20 mg/kg of body weight. After administration of the paste formulation, fecal egg counts of A tubaeforme and T cati were decreased by 98.6 and 96.4%, respectively, and 100% of hookworms and 93.5% of ascarids were removed from the intestine. After administration of the granule formulation, fecal egg counts of A tubaeforme and T cati were decreased by 99.4 and 78.2%, respectively, and 100% of adult hookworms and 88.9% of ascarids were removed. All reductions of egg counts and worm numbers were significant (P < 0.01).
The clinical safety of pyrantel pamoate was evaluated in 4- to 6-week-old kittens. Three groups of 10 kittens received either no medication (controls) or pyrantel pamoate in paste or granule formulations at the rate of 100 mg/kg for 3 consecutive days. Adverse effects were not observed in young kittens following administration of the high dose of pyrantel pamoate.
To determine signalment, diagnoses, presence of effusions in multiple sites, and outcome in cats with peritoneal effusion.
Retrospective case series.
Medical records from 1981 to 1997 were reviewed to obtain information on cats with peritoneal effusion identified on physical examination, radiographs, abdominal ultrasonograms, or at necropsy.
Conditions most commonly associated with peritoneal effusion in cats, in order of frequency, were cardiovascular disease, neoplasia, hepatic disease, renal disease, feline infectious peritonitis, peritonitis attributable to other causes, and urinary tract trauma. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was the most common disease associated with peritoneal effusion; however, DCM was diagnosed in most of these cats before taurine deficiency was found to be a primary cause of this form of cardiomyopathy in cats. Neoplasia was the most common cause after 1987. Right-sided congestive heart failure was the most commonly associated disorder in cats < 1 year old, whereas neoplastic disease was more common with increasing age. Most effusions were detected during the initial physical examination and were modified transudates. Peritoneal effusion was commonly accompanied by fluid accumulation elsewhere, particularly pleural effusion. The prognosis for a cat with abdominal effusion in this study was poor (mean survival time, 21 days; range, 1 to 350 days; median, 2.5 days).
The primary differential diagnosis for peritoneal effusion in cats is neoplastic disease in older cats and right-sided heart failure in kittens. Diseases associated with peritoneal effusion generally have poor prognoses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:375–381)
Objective—To determine whether substantial interobserver
variation exists among diagnostic pathologists
for descriptions of intestinal mucosal cell populations
and whether histopathologic descriptions
accurately predict when a patient does not have clinically
evident intestinal disease.
Sample Population—14 histologic slides of duodenal,
ileal, or colonic tissue from 10 dogs and 3
Procedure—Each histologic slide was evaluated
independently by 5 pathologists at 4 institutions.
Pathologists, who had no knowledge of the tissues'
origin, indicated whether slides were adequate for
histologic evaluation and whether the tissue was normal
or abnormal. They also identified the main infiltrating
cell type in specimens that were considered
abnormal, and whether infiltrates were mild, moderate,
severe, or neoplastic.
Results—Quality of all slides was considered adequate
or superior by at least 4 of the 5 pathologists.
For intensity of mucosal cellular infiltrates, there was
uniformity of opinion for 1 slide, near-uniformity for 6
slides, and nonuniformity for 7 slides. Five dogs did
not have clinical evidence of intestinal disease, yet
the pathologists' descriptions indicated that their
intestinal tissue specimens were abnormal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Substantial
interobserver variation was detected. Standardization
of pathologic descriptions of intestinal tissue is necessary
for meaningful comparisons with published
articles. Clinicians must be cautious about correlating
clinical signs and histopathologic descriptions of
intestinal biopsy specimens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc