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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine effects of catheter shape, interelectrode spacing (IS), and electrode size (ES) on pacing threshold (PT), extraneous muscular stimulation (EMS), and zone of capture (ZOC) for dogs undergoing transesophageal atrial pacing (TAP).

ANIMALS 10 purpose-bred dogs without cardiac conduction disturbances.

PROCEDURES 7 configurations for TAP catheters were tested in each dog to evaluate effects of catheter shape (curved or straight), IS (5, 15, and 25 mm), and ES (2, 4, and 6 mm). Each catheter was passed into the esophagus to a location aboral to the heart and slowly withdrawn until atrial pacing was achieved. Then, catheters were withdrawn in 5-mm increments until pacing could not be achieved. Outcomes measured at each pacing site included PT, degree of EMS, and ZOC.

RESULTS There was a significantly lower PT, wider ZOC, and less EMS for the curved catheter than for the straight catheter. An ES of 6 mm induced significantly more EMS than was induced by an ES of 2 or 4 mm. An IS of 5 mm induced significantly less EMS and a significantly narrower ZOC but required a significantly higher PT, compared with results for an ES of 15 or 25 mm. Additionally, there was a significant direct correlation between IS and ZOC.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that a curved catheter with multiple 4-mm electrodes that provides for variable IS would be ideal for TAP in dogs.

IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE TAP catheters currently used in human medicine are straight. The PT in humans may potentially be reduced with curved catheters.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and complexity of ventricular arrhythmias in a group of healthy Salukis evaluated by means of continuous Holter monitoring for 7 days.

DESIGN Prospective case series.

ANIMALS 25 healthy Salukis > 18 months old.

PROCEDURES In all dogs, a history was obtained and a physical examination and transthoracic echocardiography were performed to verify the absence of structural cardiac disease. Dogs then underwent Holter monitoring for 7 days. Data recorded included heart rate parameters and the occurrence of conduction disturbances, ventricular premature complexes, ventricular couplets, ventricular triplets, ventricular bigeminy, ventricular trigeminy, and ventricular tachycardia.

RESULTS 25 dogs (13 sexually intact females, 2 spayed females, and 10 sexually intact males) were enrolled in the study. All 25 dogs had at least one 24-hour period during which ventricular premature complexes were detected. Median number of ventricular premature complexes during any 24-hour period in all dogs was 2 (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 0 to 4). There were no significant differences between males and females in regard to median number of ventricular premature complexes per 24-hour period or recorded heart rate parameters.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For Salukis in the study population, 7-day Holter monitoring revealed infrequent ventricular arrhythmias. These findings suggested that detection of a ventricular arrhythmia in a healthy Saluki may be an indication for further diagnostic evaluation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association