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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the safety and efficacy of preoperative administration of meloxicam with that of ketoprofen and butorphanol in dogs undergoing abdominal surgery.

Animals—36 dogs undergoing laparotomy, splenectomy, or cystotomy.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. In the first part of the study, dogs were given a single dose of meloxicam, ketoprofen, or a placebo, and buccal mucosal bleeding times were measured. In the second part of the study, dogs were given meloxicam, ketoprofen, or butorphanol prior to surgery. Dogs in the butorphanol group received a second dose immediately after surgery. Pain scores (1 to 10) were assigned hourly for 20 hours after surgery and used to determine an overall efficacy score for each dog. Dogs with a pain score ≥ 3 were given oxymorphone for pain. Dogs were euthanatized 8 days after surgery, and gross and histologic examinations of the liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract were conducted.

Results—Overall efficacy was rated as good or excellent in 9 of the 12 dogs that received meloxicam, compared with 9 of the 12 dogs that received ketoprofen and only 1 of the 12 dogs that received butorphanol. No clinically important hematologic, biochemical, or pathologic abnormalities were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that preoperative administration of meloxicam is a safe and effective method of controlling postoperative pain for 20 hours in dogs undergoing abdominal surgery; the analgesic effects of meloxicam were comparable to those of ketoprofen and superior to those of butorphanol. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:882–888)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate feasibility of performing laparoscopic-assisted placement of a jejunostomy feeding tube (J-tube) and compare complications associated with placement, short-term feedings, and medium-term healing with surgically placed tubes in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—15 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly allocated to undergo open surgical or laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement. Required nutrients were administered by a combination of enteric and oral feeding while monitoring for complications. Radiographic contrast studies documented tube direction and location, altered motility, or evidence of stricture.

Results—Jejunostomy tubes were successfully placed in the correct location and direction in all dogs. In the laparoscopic group, the ileum was initially selected in 2 dogs, 2 dogs developed moderate hemorrhage at a portal site, and 2 J-tubes kinked during placement but were successfully readjusted postoperatively. All dogs tolerated postoperative feedings. All dogs developed minor ostomy site inflammation, and 1 dog developed bile-induced dermatitis at the ostomy site. Despite mild, transient neutrophilia, no significant difference was noted in WBC counts between groups. No dog had altered gastric motility or evidence of stricture, although the jejunopexy site remained identifiable in several dogs at 30 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Requirements for successful J-tube placement were met by use of a laparoscopic-assisted technique, and postoperative complications were mild and comparable to those seen with surgical placement. Laparoscopic-assisted J-tube placement compares favorably to surgical placement in healthy dogs and should be considered as an option for dogs requiring enterostomy feeding but not requiring a celiotomy for other reasons. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:65–71)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 13-year-old neutered female Keeshond-cross was evaluated because of a history of melena, anemia, hematemesis, vomiting, and high serum liver enzyme activities over a 1.5-year period.

Clinical Findings—Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a hyperechoic mass in the gallbladder. In the gallbladder mass itself, a distinct linear blood flow pattern was detected by use of color flow Doppler ultrasonography.

Treatment and Outcome—A cholecystectomy was performed, and clinical signs resolved. Samples of the mass were examined histologically and immunohistochemically, and findings supported a diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor of the gallbladder.

Clinical Relevance—Tumors of the biliary tree are a potential source of blood loss into the gastrointestinal tract. Color flow Doppler ultrasonography in conjunction with conventional grayscale ultrasonography may be useful in evaluation of the gallbladder in dogs. When echogenic material is detected in the gallbladder, it is important to evaluate the region for blood flow.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of repeated use and resterilization on structural and functional integrity of microwave ablation (MWA) antennas.

SAMPLE 17 cooled-shaft MWA antennas (3 groups of 5 antennas/group and 2 control antennas).

PROCEDURES 1, 2, and 3 ablations in the livers of bovine cadavers were performed at the maximum recommended settings. Antennas were cleaned and sterilized in hydrogen peroxide plasma, and the process was repeated (reprocessing cycle; n = 6). Control antennas were only sterilized (6 times). Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed, and antennas were microscopically assessed for damage.

RESULTS 6 cycles were completed. Thirteen of 15 MWA antennas remained functional for up to 4 cycles, 10 were functional after 5 cycles, and only 7 were functional after 6 cycles. Progressive tearing of the silicone coating of the antennas was observed, with a negative effect of the number of cycles for silicone tearing. Size of the ablation zone decreased mildly over time after cycles 5 and 6; however, this was not considered clinically relevant. No significant changes in the shape of ablation zones were detected. All cultures yielded negative results, except for an isolated case, which was considered a contaminant.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Structural and functional integrity of the microwave antennas remained acceptable during repeated use and reprocessing for up to 4 cycles. However, there was a decrease in functional integrity at cycles 5 and 6. We suggest that these microwave antennas be subjected to > 3 reprocessing cycles. Antennas should be carefully examined before reuse.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine accuracy, intermethod agreement, and inter-reviewer agreement for multisequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2-view orthogonal myelography in small-breed dogs with first-time intervertebral disk (IVD) extrusion.

Design—Prospective evaluation study.

Animals—24 dogs with thoracolumbar IVD extrusion.

Procedures—Each dog underwent MRI and myelography. Images obtained with each modality were independently evaluated and assigned standardized scores in a blinded manner by 3 reviewers. Results were compared with surgical findings. Inter-reviewer and intermethod agreements were assessed via κ statistics. Accuracy was assessed as the percentage of dogs for which ≥ 2 of 3 reviewers recorded findings identical to those determined surgically.

Results—Inter-reviewer agreement was substantial for site (κ = 0.70) and side of IVD extrusion (κ = 0.62) in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and was substantial for site (κ = 0.72) and fair for side of extrusion (κ = 0.37) in myelographic images. Agreement for site between each modality and surgical findings was near perfect (κ = 0.94 and 0.88 for MRI and myelography, respectively). Intermethod agreement was substantial for site (κ = 0.71) and moderate for side of extrusion (κ = 0.40). Accuracy of MRI for site and side was 100% when results for T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences were combined. Accuracy of myelography was 90.9% and 54.5% for site and side, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between imaging results and surgical findings for identification of IVD extrusion sites in small-breed dogs was similar for MRI and myelography. However, MRI appeared to be more accurate than myelography and allowed evaluation of extradural compressive mass composition.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of pneumoperitoneum created with warmed humidified CO2 (WHCO2) during laparoscopy on core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, systemic inflammation, peritoneal response, and signs of postoperative pain in healthy mature dogs.

ANIMALS 6 mature purpose-bred dogs.

PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, each dog was anesthetized twice, and pneumoperitoneum was created with standard-temperature CO2 (STCO2; 22°C and 0% relative humidity) and WHCO2 (37°C and 98% relative humidity). Data were collected during each procedure, including core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, and inflammatory biomarkers. Peritoneal biopsy specimens were collected and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Dogs were assessed for signs of postoperative pain.

RESULTS Mean core body temperature was significantly lower (35.2°C; 95% confidence interval, 34.5° to 35.8°C) with WHCO2 than with STCO2 (35.9°C; 95% confidence interval, 35.3° to 36.6°C) across all time points. Cardiac index increased during the procedure for both treatments but was not significantly different between treatments. Thromboelastography variables did not differ significantly between treatments as indicated by the coagulation index. Subjective evaluation of peritoneal biopsy specimens revealed mesothelial cell loss with STCO2. There was no significant difference in circulating C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 concentrations. There was a significant increase in the number of postoperative pain scores > 0 for the WHCO2 treatment versus the STCO2 treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Analysis of these data suggested that effects on evaluated variables attributable to the use of WHCO2 for creating pneumoperitoneum in healthy mature dogs undergoing laparoscopy did not differ from effects for the use of STCO2.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in the lungs of cattle at various times after arrival at a feedlot, to measure the relationship between clinical disease status and the concentration and genotype of M bovis within the lungs, and to investigate changes in the genotype of M bovis over time.

Sample—Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 328 healthy or pneumonic beef cattle and 20 M bovis isolates obtained from postmortem samples.

Procedures—The concentration of M bovis in BALF was determined via real-time PCR assays, and M bovis isolates from BALF were genotyped via amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.

Results—Prevalence of M bovis in BALF was 1 of 60 (1.7%) at arrival to a feedlot and 26 of 36 (72.2%) and 36 of 42 (85.7%) at ≤ 15 days and 55 days after arrival, respectively. Neither the concentration nor the AFLP type of M bovis in BALF was correlated with clinical disease status. The M bovis AFLP type differed between early and later sampling periods in 14 of 17 cattle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The findings implied spread of M bovis among calves and suggested that host factors and copathogens may determine disease outcomes in infected calves. Chronic pulmonary infection with M bovis may represent a dynamic situation of bacterial clearance and reinfection with strains of different AFLP type, rather than continuous infection with a single clone. These findings impact our understanding of why cattle with chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome inadequately respond to antimicrobial treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess selenium (Se) status of cats in 4 regions of the world and to compare results for Se status with reported incidence of hyperthyroidism in cats in those regions.

Animals—50 cats (30 from 2 regions with an allegedly high incidence of hyperthyroidism and 20 from 2 regions in which the disease is less commonly reported).

Procedure—Hematologic samples (heparinized whole blood, plasma, and RBC fractions) were obtained from 43 healthy euthyroid cats and 7 hyperthyroid cats. Plasma concentration of Se and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in whole blood and plasma were determined.

Results—Plasma concentration of Se and GPX activity in whole blood or plasma did not differ significantly among cats from the 4 regions. However, cats had a plasma concentration of Se that was approximately 10 times the concentration reported in rats and humans. The GPX activity in whole blood or plasma in cats generally was higher than values reported in rats or humans.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats have higher Se concentrations in plasma, compared with values for other species. However, Se status alone does not appear to affect the incidence of hyperthyroidism in cats. High Se concentrations may have implications for health of cats if such concentrations are influenced by the amount of that micronutrient included in diets. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:934–937)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research