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  • Author or Editor: Rita Gonçalves x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize outcomes following nonsurgical treatment of congenital thoracic vertebral body malformations causing neurologic deficits in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 13 client-owned dogs treated nonsurgically for congenital thoracic vertebral body malformations at 3 veterinary referral hospitals from June 2009 through May 2016.

PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the medical records regarding dog signalment, duration and type of clinical signs before referral, general physical and neurologic examination findings, radiographic and MRI findings, and treatments provided after diagnosis. Follow-up data were obtained from records of recheck examinations and via a standardized owner questionnaire.

RESULTS All included dogs were screw-tail brachycephalic breeds with a median age of 6 months. All dogs had ambulatory paraparesis and ataxia, and in 1 dog, signs of spinal hyperesthesia could be elicited. Nonsurgical treatments consisted of restricted exercise without (n = 5) or with (3) physiotherapy, physiotherapy without restricted exercise (3), and no exercise modification (2). Seven dogs received additional nonsurgical treatment consisting of prednisolone (n = 5) or gabapentin (2). Four dogs were eventually euthanized because of progressive neurologic deterioration, 2 underwent surgery for the same reason, and the remaining 7 dogs survived for ≥ 170 days after diagnosis, despite progressive neurologic deterioration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Nonsurgical treatment of congenital thoracic vertebral body malformations was associated with an unfavorable outcome in this group of dogs. Despite this treatment, all dogs had progression of clinical signs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the signalment, clinical findings, presumptive or definitive diagnosis, and outcome in cats with central cord syndrome (CCS).

ANIMALS

22 cats.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

Cats evaluated for CCS at 7 referral hospitals between 2017 and 2021 were included. Information retrieved from medical records included signalment, physical and neurological examination findings, diagnostic investigations, definitive or presumptive diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.

RESULTS

Median age at presentation was 9 years. Two neuroanatomical localizations were associated with CCS: C1-C5 spinal cord segments in 17 (77.3%) cats and C6-T2 spinal cord segments in 5 (22.7%) cats. Neuroanatomical localization did not correlate with lesion location on MRI in 8 (36.3%) cats. The most common lesion location within the vertebral column was over the C2 and C4 vertebral bodies in 6 (27.2%) and 5 (22.7%) cats, respectively. Peracute clinical signs were observed in 11 (50%) cats, acute in 1 (4.5%), subacute in 4 (18%), and chronic and progressive signs were seen in 6 (40.9%) cats. The most common peracute condition was ischemic myelopathy in 8 (36.3%) cats, whereas neoplasia was the most frequently identified chronic etiology occurring in 5 (22.7%) cats. Outcome was poor in 13 (59%) cats, consisting of 4 of 11 (36.6%) of the peracute cases, 3 of 4 (75%) of the subacute cases, and 6 of 6 of the chronic cases.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Central cord syndrome can occur in cats with lesions in the C1-C5 and C6-T2 spinal cord segments. Multiple etiologies can cause CCS, most commonly, ischemic myelopathy and neoplasia. Prognosis depends on the etiology and onset of clinical signs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate whether concurrent analysis of CSF samples from 2 collection sites (cerebellomedullary cistern [CMC] and lumbar subarachnoid space [LSS]) versus only 1 site could improve the diagnostic sensitivity of CSF analysis for dogs with suspected steroid-responsive meningitis arteritis (SRMA).

ANIMALS

111 client-owned dogs with SRMA diagnosed at 3 veterinary referral hospitals between 2011 and 2017.

PROCEDURES

Only dogs with CSF collected from both sites (CMC and LSS) and with no previous history of corticosteroid administration were included. Medical record data and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with having a total nucleated cell concentration (TNCC) within the reference interval in a CSF sample from 1 collection site.

RESULTS

The TNCC was within the reference interval (TNCC < 5 cells/μL) in the CSF sample from 1 collection site for 8 of 111 (7%) dogs and was only slightly high (TNCC, 5 to 9 cells/μL) in the sample from 1 or both sites for 10 (11%) other dogs. For each of these 18 dogs, results for samples from 1 site were consistent with SRMA. The proportion of CSF samples that had a TNCC within the reference interval was comparable between sites. As age increased, so did the risk of having an unremarkable TNCC in the CSF sample from 1 site, albeit only slightly (OR, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.16).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CSF samples from both the CMC and LSS should be analyzed when evaluating dogs with suspected SRMA to improve the chance of detecting a high TNCC.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association