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Objectives—To evaluate the effects of equine recombinant interleukin-1α (rEqIL-1α) and recombinant interleukin- 1β (rEqIL-1β) on proteoglycan metabolism and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis by equine articular chondrocytes in explant culture.

Sample Population—Near full-thickness articular cartilage explants (approx 50 mg) harvested from stifle joints of a 3-year-old and a 5-year-old horse.

Procedure—Expression constructs containing cDNA sequences encoding EqIL-1α and EqIL-1β were generated, prokaryotically expressed, and the recombinant protein purified. Near full-thickness articular cartilage explants (approx 50 mg) harvested from stifle joints of a 3-year-old and a 5-year-old horse were separately randomized to receive rEqIL- 1α or rEqIL-1β treatments (0 to 500 ng/ml). Proteoglycan release was evaluated by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue spectrophotometric analysis of explant media glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration and release of 35S-sulfate-labeled GAG to explant media. Proteoglycan synthesis was assessed by quantification of 35S-sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan. Explant media PGE2 concentrations were evaluated using a PGE2-specific enzyme-linked immunoassay. Data were collected at 48-hour intervals and normalized by DNA content.

Results—Proteoglycan release was induced by rEqIL- 1α and rEqIL-1β at concentrations ≥ 0.1 ng/ml, with 38 to 76% and 88 to 98% of total GAG released by 4 and 6 days, respectively. Inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis (42 to 64%) was observed at IL-1 concentrations ≥ 0.1 ng/ml at 2 and 4 days. Increased PGE2 concentrations were observed at IL-1 concentrations ≥ 0.1 ng/ml at 2 and 4 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The rEqIL-1 induced potent concentration-dependent derangement of equine chondrocyte metabolism in vitro . These findings suggest this model may be suitable for the in vitro study of the pathogenesis and treatment of joint disease in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:551–558)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine clinical outcome following intrathecal injection of the podotrochlear (navicular) bursa for signs of foot pain in horses evaluated via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluate efficacy of corticosteroids administered with or without hyaluronate.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—23 horses.

Procedures—Data collected included signalment, history, intended use, duration and severity of lameness, results of diagnostic anesthesia, radiographic abnormalities, MRI abnormalities, and outcomes for return to use.

Results—MRI was conducted on 23 horses with lameness localized to the foot. Thirteen horses had bilateral forelimb lameness, and 10 had unilateral forelimb lameness. Mean duration of lameness was 10.5 months. Seventeen of 23 (74%) horses had excellent outcomes and returned to intended use within 2 to 4 weeks after navicular bursa injection. Hyaluronate treatment was not associated with outcome; however, horses receiving < 10 mg of trimacinolone had significantly worse outcomes than those treated with hyaluronate. Among horses with excellent outcomes, mean duration of soundness was 7.3 months. Seven of 8 horses with erosive lesions of the flexor surface of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone diagnosed via MRI had a poor outcome. Horses with navicular bursitis responded optimally to injection, compared with horses with other problems.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that intrathecal injection of corticosteroid in horses with erosions of the flexor surface of the navicular bone associated with deep digital flexor tendon adhesions yielded a poor response. Treatment of horses with navicular bursitis via injection of the navicular bursa should be highly effective in alleviating lameness.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association