OBJECTIVE To determine the anatomic location and clinical signs of thymoma in goats and long-term outcomes in a subset of goats treated by tumor excision.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 13 goats with a histologic diagnosis of thymoma at the Cornell University Hospital for Animals between 1990 and 2014.
PROCEDURES Medical records of goats with thymoma were reviewed and data were evaluated regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic imaging results, thymoma size, treatment, and outcome. Follow-up information was obtained via contact with the owners and review of medical records.
RESULTS 8 goats had a mediastinal mass, 4 had a palpable ventral cervical mass, and 1 had both types of masses. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 9.5 years (range, 3 to 12 years). Goats with a mediastinal mass had respiratory distress or marked tachypnea. Six goats were treated surgically, including all 5 with a ventral cervical mass. All 5 goats with a ventral cervical mass survived with no tumor recurrence for ≥ 1 year after excision. Only 2 goats with a mediastinal mass survived to hospital discharge.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the prognosis for goats following excision of ventral cervical thymomas was favorable, whereas goats with mediastinal thymomas appeared more likely to have severe clinical signs and a guarded prognosis.
Objective—To compare postoperative complications,
short- and long-term survival, and surgical times for
hand-sewn end-to-end (EE), stapled functional end-toend
(FEE), and stapled side-to-side (SS) anastomotic
techniques for jejunal resection in horses.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to
obtain signalment, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome
for horses that underwent jejunojejunostomy in
our hospital. Only horses that recovered from anesthesia
were included in the study.
Results—Among the 59 horses, there were 33 EE,
15 FEE, and 11 SS anastomoses. No difference was
found in duration of surgery among the 3 techniques.
The most common postoperative complications
were colic episodes (56%), ileus (53%), diarrhea
(20%), and adhesions (15%). Horses with SS anastomosis
had a significantly shorter duration of postoperative
ileus than the EE group did. No significant
difference in duration of postoperative ileus was
found among the other groups. No difference was
found among the 3 anastomotic techniques in regard
to survival rate at the time of discharge, 6 months
after surgery, or 1 year after surgery. Overall survival
rates after jejunal anastomosis were 88% at the time
of discharge, 65% at 6 months after surgery, and
57% at ≥ 1 year after surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The handsewn
EE, stapled FEE, and stapled SS anastomotic
techniques should be considered equivalent methods
for small intestinal anastomosis in the horse.
However, the stapled SS technique may be preferred
because of possible decreased duration of postoperative
ileus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:215–218)
Objective—To determine the phase and quantitate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, hyoepiglotticus, omohyoideus, sternohyoideus, sternothyroideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles of clinically normal horses during strenuous exercise.
Animals—7 clinically normal adult horses (2 Thoroughbreds and 5 Standardbreds).
Procedures—Bipolar electrodes were surgically implanted in the aforementioned muscles, and horses were subjected to an incremental exercise test on a high-speed treadmill. The EMG, heart rate, respiratory rate, and static pharyngeal airway pressures were measured during exercise. The EMG was measured as mean electrical activity (MEA). The MEA values for maximal exercise intensity (13 or 14 m/s) were expressed as a percentage of the MEA measured at an exercise intensity of 6 m/s.
Results—MEA was detected during expiration in the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, sternohyoideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles and during inspiration in the hyoepiglotticus and sternothyroideus muscles. Intensity of the MEA increased significantly with exercise intensity in the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, and hyoepiglotticus muscles. Intensity of the MEA increased significantly in relation to expiratory pharyngeal pressure in the geniohyoideus and hyoepiglotticus muscles.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Once exercise intensity reached 6 m/s, no quantifiable additional increase in muscular activity was detected in the omohyoideus, sternohyoideus, sternothyroideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles. However, muscles that may affect the diameter of the oropharynx (genioglossus and geniohyoideus muscles) or rima glottis (hyoepiglotticus muscle) had activity correlated with the intensity of exercise or expiratory pharyngeal pressures. Activity of the muscles affecting the geometry of the oropharynx may be important in the pathophysiologic processes associated with nasopharyngeal patency.
Objective—To investigate whether upper airway
sounds of horses exercising with laryngeal hemiplegia
and alar fold paralysis have distinct sound characteristics,
compared with unaffected horses.
Animals—6 mature horses.
Procedure—Upper airway sounds were recorded in
horses exercising on a high-speed treadmill at maximum
heart rate (HRMAX) under 3 treatment conditions
(ie, normal upper airway function [control condition],
and after induction of left laryngeal hemiplegia or bilateral
alar fold paralysis) in a randomized crossover
design. Fundamental frequency, spectrograms using
Gabor transform, and intensity characteristics of
acquired sounds (peak sound level [soundpeak] and
highest frequency of at least –25 dB sound intensity
[F25max]) were evaluated.
Results—Evaluation of the fundamental frequency of
the time domain signal was not useful. Sensitivity and
specificity (83 and 75%, respectively) of spectrograms
were greatest at maximal exercise, but the
exact abnormal condition was identified in evaluation
of only 12 of 18 spectrograms. Increased accuracy
was obtained using soundpeak and F25max as discriminating
variables. The use of soundpeak discriminated
between control and laryngeal hemiplegia conditions
and F25max between laryngeal hemiplegia and alar fold
paralysis conditions. This increased the specificity of
sound analysis to 92% (sensitivity 83%) and accurately
classified the abnormal state in 92% of affected
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sound analysis
might be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis and evaluation
of treatment of horses with upper airway obstruction,
but would appear to require close attention to
exercise intensity. Multiple measurements of recorded
sounds might be needed to obtain sufficient accuracy
for clinical use. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1707–1713)
Objective—To evaluate whether administering a tart cherry juice blend (TCJB) prior to exercise would reduce skeletal and cardiac muscle damage by decreasing the inflammatory and oxidative stress response to exercise in horses.
Procedures—Horses were randomly allocated into 2 groups in a crossover study with a 2-week washout period and orally administered either TCJB or a placebo solution (1.42 L, twice daily) in a double-masked protocol for 2 weeks prior to a stepwise incremental exercise protocol. Horses were tested for serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; an indicator of oxidative stress), and serum amyloid A (SAA; an indicator of inflammation). To ensure that treatment would not result in positive results of an equine drug-screening protocol, serum samples obtained from each horse prior to and after 2 weeks of administration of TCJB or the placebo solution were tested.
Results—All horses had negative results of drug screening at both sample times. The exercise protocol resulted in a significant increase in TBARS concentration, SAA concentration, and serum AST activity in all horses. Administration of TCJB or placebo solution was not associated with an effect on malondialdehyde or SAA concentrations. However, administration of TCJB was associated with less serum activity of AST, compared with administration of placebo solution.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of TCJB may diminish muscle damage induced by exercise.