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  • Author or Editor: Richard N. Bergman x
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Objective—To investigate the effects of administration of acepromazine on IV glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) in dogs.

Animals—8 male mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—With a 1-week interval between tests, each dog underwent (in random order) an IVGTT with or without pretest administration of acepromazine maleate (0.1 mg/kg, SC, 30 minutes prior to the start of the IVGTT). Food was withheld from the dogs for 14 hours prior to each test. Blood samples were obtained at 20, 10, and 1 minute prior to and at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 19, 22, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, 160, and 180 minutes after administration of glucose.

Results—There were no significant differences in the baseline (ie, after food was withheld) plasma glucose, lactate, and insulin concentrations between dogs undergoing the IVGTT and acepromazine-IVGTT; however, lower baseline free fatty acid concentration was observed in acepromazine-treated dogs. Analysis of data via the application of Bergman's minimal model of glucose kinetics revealed no differences in insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response to glucose, disposition index, or glucose effectiveness between dogs treated or not treated with acepromazine before testing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that in dogs undergoing IV glucose tolerance testing, pretest administration of small doses of acepromazine can be used as a means of chemical restraint without interfering with results of the glucose metabolism assessment. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1124–1127)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate species identification and rabies virus (RABV) characterization among samples from bats submitted for rabies testing in the United States and assess whether a standardized approach to specimen selection for RABV characterization could enhance detection of a sentinel event in virus dissemination among bats.


United States public health rabies surveillance system data collected in January 2010 through December 2015.


The number of rabies-tested bats for which species was reported and the number of RABV-positive samples for which virus characterization would likely provide information regarding introduction of novel RABV variants and translocation and host-shift events were calculated. These specimens were designated as specimens of epizootiological importance (SEIs). Additionally, the estimated test load that public health laboratories could expect if all SEIs underwent RABV characterization was determined.


Species was reported for 74,928 of 160,017 (47%) bats submitted for rabies testing. Identified SEIs were grouped in 3 subcategories, namely nonindigenous bats; bats in southern border states, Florida, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands; and bats of species that are not commonly found to be inflected with RABV. Annually, 692 (95% CI, 600 to 784) SEIs were identified, of which only 295 (95% CI, 148 to 442) underwent virus characterization. Virus characterization of all SEIs would be expected to increase public health laboratories’ overall test load by 397 (95% CI, 287 to 506) samples each year.


Species identification and RABV characterization may aid detection of a sentinel event in bat RABV dissemination. With additional resources, RABV characterization of all SEIs as a standardized approach to testing could contribute to knowledge of circulating bat RABV variants.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association