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Objective—To investigate the association between naturally occurring chronic kidney disease (CKD) and FIV infection status in cats in Australia.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—73 cats with CKD and 69 cats without historical, physical, or clinicopathologic evidence of CKD.

Procedures—Cats were tested for serum antibodies against FIV glycoprotein 40 (gp40) by use of an immunomigration assay. Information regarding age, breed (purebred or domestic), and sex was obtained from medical records. Analysis was performed on data from cats stratified into 2 age categories (< 11 years old and ≥ 11 years old). Univariable and then multivariable analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between CKD and the study variable (FIV infection), the latter analysis accounting for breed (purebred or domestic), sex, and veterinary hospital of origin.

Results—Results of multivariable analysis revealed that younger cats with CKD (< 11 years old) were significantly more likely to have positive test results for serum antibodies against FIV gp40 than were cats without CKD. No significant associations were found between CKD and FIV infection, breed, sex, or hospital of origin among older (≥ 11 years old) cats in the multivariable analysis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among cats < 11 years of age, those with CKD were significantly more likely to have positive test results for serum antibodies against FIV gp40 than were cats without CKD. It cannot be definitively established from results of this study whether infection with FIV preceded the development of CKD, and the role, if any, of FIV in the establishment or progression of CKD remains to be determined.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate agreement between 2 portable triglyceride meters and a veterinary laboratory for measurement of blood triglyceride concentrations in dogs and evaluate effects of Hct and blood volume analyzed.

Sample Population—97 blood samples collected from 60 dogs.

Procedures—Triglyceride concentrations were measured in blood by use of 2 meters and compared with serum triglyceride concentrations determined by a veterinary laboratory. Within- and between-day precision, accuracy, and effects of blood volume and Hct were analyzed.

Results—Accuracy of both meters varied with triglyceride concentration, although both accurately delineated dogs with triglyceride concentrations < 180 mg/dL versus ≥ 180 mg/dL. One meter had results with excellent overall correlation with results of the standard laboratory method, with a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.94 and mean difference of 20.3 mg/dL. The other meter had a good overall concordance correlation coefficient of 0.86 with a higher absolute mean difference of −27.7 mg/dL. Results were only affected by blood volume; triglyceride concentrations determined via both meters were significantly lower when 7 μL of EDTA-anticoagulated blood was used, compared with larger volumes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—1 meter had greater accuracy in the range of 140 to 400 mg/dL and was therefore well suited to detect hypertriglyceridemia. The other meter was accurate with triglyceride values < 140 mg/dL and yielded results similar to those of the veterinary laboratory in the range of 140 to 400 mg/dL, therefore being suitable for determination of triglyceride concentrations in nonfed dogs and dogs with mildly high concentrations.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare serum triglyceride concentrations obtained after food had been withheld (ie, fasting concentrations) in dogs with epilepsy that had been treated long term (t 3 months) with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and potassium bromide with concentrations in healthy control dogs.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—57 epileptic dogs that had been treated with phenobarbital (n = 28) or with phenobarbital and bromide (29) and 57 healthy, untreated control dogs matched on the basis of age, breed, sex, neuter status, and body condition score.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected after food had been withheld for at least 12 hours, and serum biochemical and lipid concentrations were determined. Oral fat tolerance tests were performed in 15 control dogs and 9 dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital alone.

Results—19 of the 57 (33%) epileptic dogs had fasting serum triglyceride concentrations greater than the upper reference limit. Nine (16%) dogs had a history of pancreatitis, and 5 of the 9 had high fasting serum triglyceride concentrations at the time of the study. A significant relationship was found between body condition score and fasting serum triglyceride concentration in all dogs, but serum triglyceride concentration was not significantly associated with phenobarbital dosage or serum phenobarbital concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs treated long term with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide may develop hypertriglyceridemia. Fasting serum triglyceride concentration should be periodically monitored in dogs treated with phenobarbital because hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for pancreatitis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical and pathologic findings associated with an outbreak of cryptococcosis in an unusual geographic location (British Columbia, Canada).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—1 pink-fronted cockatoo, 2 ferrets, 20 cats, and 15 dogs.

Procedure—A presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcosis was made on the basis of serologic, histopathologic, or cytologic findings, and a definitive diagnosis was made on the basis of culture or immunohistochemical staining.

Results—No breed or sex predilections were detected in affected dogs or cats. Eleven cats had neurologic signs, 7 had skin lesions, and 5 had respiratory tract signs. None of 17 cats tested serologically for FeLV yielded positive results; 1 of 17 cats yielded positive results for FIV (western blot). Nine of 15 dogs had neurologic signs, 2 had periorbital swellings, and only 3 had respiratory tract signs initially. Microbiologic culture in 15 cases yielded 2 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii (serotype A) and 13 isolates of C neoformans var gattii(serotype B); all organisms were susceptible to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Serologic testing had sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 98%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serologic titers were beneficial in identifying infection in animals with nonspecific signs, but routine serum biochemical or hematologic parameters were of little value in diagnosis. Most animals had nonspecific CNS signs and represented a diagnostic challenge. Animals that travel to or live in this region and have nonspecific malaise or unusual neurologic signs should be evaluated for cryptococcosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1716–1722)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe the clinical findings and outcomes of Australian cats and dogs with CNS cryptococcosis.


19 cats and 31 dogs with CNS cryptococcosis diagnosed between 2000 and 2020.


A case series and cohort study were performed using the same 50 animals. Both studies were multi-institutional and both retrospective and prospective. Disease features were compared between cats and dogs, and associations between putative risk factors and survival time (ST) were assessed.


Dogs were younger at initial presentation than cats and had lower latex cryptococcal antigen agglutination titers. Extraneurologic signs were common and frequently involved sinonasal and contiguous tissues. Neuroanatomic localization was predominantly forebrain, central vestibular (including cerebellum), multifocal, or diffuse. CSF analysis predominantly showed pleocytosis, with eosinophilic inflammation common in dogs. Seventy-eight percent (39/50) of patients received antifungal treatment. Median STs (from presentation) in treated patients were 1,678 days for cats and 679 days for dogs. Abnormal mentation at presentation (in dogs) and CSF collection (in cats) were associated with shorter STs. In treated dogs, those that received glucocorticoids prior to diagnosis, or single rather than multiple antifungal agents, had shorter STs.


The prognosis for feline and canine CNS cryptococcosis is guarded, yet long STs are possible with appropriate treatment. Presence of subtle upper respiratory tract signs may suggest cryptococcosis in patients with neurologic signs, while the absence of neurologic signs does not preclude CNS involvement.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association