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  • Author or Editor: Richard M. DeBowes x
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Summary

Medical records of 12 calves ≤1 month old, with fracture of the femoral diaphysis, were reviewed. Ten calves were within 1 week of birth at the time of diagnosis. Open reduction was accomplished by use of a lateral approach. Retrograde intramedullary pinning was accomplished in all calves, using 2 (n = 4 calves) or 3 (n = 8 calves) pins. Cerclage wire was used to supplement fixation in 7 calves. A closed continuous suction drain was placed along the lateral aspect of the femur in every calf.

Postsurgical complications included seroma formation over the middle gluteal musculature (n = 5 calves), pin migration (n = 6 calves), and osteomyelitis (n = 1 calf). Pin migration was observed in 4 calves that had been treated with nonthreaded trochar point pins.

Fractures in 10 of 12 calves (83%) were considered to have healed satisfactorily. One calf was euthanatized because of septic osteomyelitis of the femur. One calf was euthanatized because of persistent lameness and pin migration. Pins were removed in 8 of 12 calves (67%) between the 13th and 90th postoperative days. Results of this study indicate that application of intramedullary pins may be a useful solution for management of femoral diaphyseal fracture in young calves.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 5 calves with tibial fractures that were reduced and stabilized by transfixation pinning and casting were reviewed. Multiple Steinmann pins were placed transversely through proximal and distal fracture fragments, and the pin ends were incorporated in fiberglass cast material after fracture reduction. Cast material serves as an external frame to maintain pin position and fracture reduction.

Calves were between 2 weeks and 6 months old and weighed between 40 and 180 kg. Three fractures were spiral in configuration and 2 were comminuted. One tibial fracture was open. After surgery, all calves were ambulatory within 24 hours. To improve tarsal flexion and achieve normal stance in 3 calves, cast revision was required on the caudal aspect of the limb. Good radiographic and clinical evidence of stability was observed in 5 to 10 weeks (mean 8 weeks), at which time the pins and cast were removed. Return to normal function was rapid and judged to be excellent at follow-up evaluation 3 to 12 months later.

Advantages of transfixation pinning and casting in management of tibial fractures include flexibility in pin positioning, adequate maintenance of reduction, early return to weight-bearing status, joint mobility, and ease of ambulation. The inability to adjust fixation and alignment after cast application is a disadvantage of this technique, compared with other external fixators.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical effects of immobilization followed by remobilization and exercise on the metacarpophalangeal joint (MPJ) in horses.

Animals—5 healthy horses.

Procedure—After lameness, radiographic, and force plate examinations to determine musculoskeletal health, 1 forelimb of each horse was immobilized in a fiberglass cast for 7 weeks, followed by cast removal and increasing amounts of exercise, beginning with hand-walking and ending with treadmill exercise. Lameness examination, arthrocentesis of both MPJ, single-emulsion radiographic examination, nuclear scintigraphic examination, ground-reaction force-plate analysis, and computed tomographic examination were done at various times during the study.

Results—All horses were lame in the immobilized MPJ after cast removal; lameness improved slightly with exercise. Force plate analysis revealed a significant difference in peak forces between immobilized and contralateral limbs 2 weeks after cast removal. Range of motion of the immobilized MPJ was significantly decreased, and joint circumference was significantly increased, compared with baseline values, during the exercise period. Osteopenia was subjectively detected in the immobilized limbs. Significant increase in the uptake of radionucleotide within bones of the immobilized MPJ after cast removal and at the end of the study were detected. Loss of mineral opacity, increased vascular channels in the subchondral bone, and thickening within the soft tissues of the immobilized MPJ were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that 8 weeks of enforced exercise after 7 weeks of joint immobilization did not restore joint function or values for various joint measurements determined prior to immobilization. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:282–288)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine history, physical and diagnostic examination findings, medical treatment, and outcome of horses with open injuries to the digital flexor tendon sheath treated with the assistance of tenoscopy.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—20 horses.

Procedure—Medical records of 20 horses with open injuries to the digital flexor tendon sheath were reviewed. Signalment, history, physical and diagnostic examination results, bacteriologic culture and susceptibility testing results, surgical and medical treatments, and follow-up examination results were determined. Outcome was determined by use of telephone interview or physical examination.

Results—All horses were treated with tenoscopicassisted lavage and débridement. Eighteen horses survived, and 2 were euthanatized during treatment. All horses were either grade-4 or grade-5 lame before treatment. Ten horses returned to previous use. Four horses were considered mildly lame and in athletic use. Three horses were considered mechanically lame and are in use with reduced expectations. One horse was lost to follow-up after being sold. One horse was euthanatized for financial reasons and 1 because of complications from regional sepsis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tenoscopy appears to be a useful modality in the treatment of open injury to the digital flexor tendon sheath in horses. Direct viewing, guided débridement, and targeted large-volume lavage are advantages obtained with intrathecal arthroscopy. Tenoscopy, when combined with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory treatment, appears to offer a good chance of survival for affected horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1823–1827)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Endoscopy of the nasopharynx, pharynx, and larynx was performed in each of 25 adult Jersey cows, age and body weight of which ranged from 2 to 6 years and 300 to 365 kg, respectively. The endoscopic appearance of normal anatomic structures of the proximal portion of the airway were described. Observations specific to female dairy cattle were: the nasal septum, which tapered caudodorsally in the distal third of the nasal passage; the ability to observe both ethmoturbinates from the same viewing side; presence of a pharyngeal septum; the nasopharyngeal opening of the auditory tubes dorsolateral to the pharyngeal septum; and the appearance of the larynx — a triangular epiglottis with round borders and prominent corniculate process of the arytenoid cartilages. Tracheoscopy was performed in 13 cows. Of 11 cows for which the soft palate could be observed immediately after withdrawing the endoscope, 7 had dorsal displacement of the soft palate.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of 2 drugs commonly used for chemical restraint of cattle were evaluated for their effect on laryngeal and pharyngeal anatomy, function, and response to stimuli. Eighteen adult Jersey cows, free of respiratory tract disease, were studied. Cows were assigned at random to 1 of 3 treatment groups. Endoscopic evaluations were performed before and at a predetermined time interval after administration of each drug. Responses to stimuli were evaluated by stimulating 7 preselected sites (epiglottis, left and right arytenoid cartilages, left and right vocal folds, and left and right dorsolateral pharyngeal walls) with a closed, transendoscopic biopsy probe. Xylazine HCl (0.05 mg/kg of body weight, IV) was administered to group-1 cows (n = 6), and endoscopy was repeated 5 minutes after administration of the drug. Xylazine (0.07 mg/kg, IV) was administered to group-2 cows (n = 6), and endoscopy was repeated 5 minutes after administration of the drug. Acepromazine maleate (0.035 mg/kg, IV) was administered to group-3 cows (n = 6), and endoscopy was repeated 10 minutes after administration of the drug. Responses to stimuli were scored as brisk (0), moderate (1), slow (2), and absent (3). Scores for responses to stimuli were compared, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for data within groups, and a general linear models procedure, using the Kruskal-Wallis test between groups. Interobserver agreement rates were generated for each group. A value of P< 0.05 was considered significant.

Xylazine profoundly changed laryngeal sensitivity and function at both dosages. The corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilages were observed to be in a markedly adducted position after sedation.

Response to stimuli was significantly (P = 0.03) slower than normal after sedation, using both dosages. Displacement of the soft palate dorsal to the epiglottis was persistent in 50% of the cows after stimulation tests subsequent to sedation with xylazine. Acepromazine had a mild effect on laryngeal sensitivity and function. The corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilages were observed in paramedian position after sedation. Acepromazine did not significantly affect responses to stimuli. Effects of sedation on responses to stimuli were not significantly different for groups 1 and 2. However, effects for group 3 were significantly different from those for groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.006 and 0.004, respectively).

Endoscopic evaluation of the proximal portion of the respiratory tract of cattle should be performed without sedation, when possible. If sedation is required to facilitate restraint for endoscopy, acepromazine maleate is recommended over xylazine on the basis of results of this study.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research