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  • Author or Editor: Richard L. Ziprin x
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Newly hatched chickens were treated with the trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin, during the first day of life. Control chickens were treated with other agents known to cause immunosuppression—cyclosporine, cyclophosphamide, and aflatoxin. Chickens were infected on day 6 (5 days after treatment with T-2 toxin) by intraperitoneal inoculation with Salmonella typhimurium. Blood samples were collected from treated chickens (noninfected) and used to assess the responsiveness of blood lymphocytes to T-cell or B-cell mitogens, phytohemagglutinin, or lipopolysaccharide, respectively. The T-2 toxin had a profound negative effect on the ability of the chickens to resist salmonellosis, as measured by survival. However, the toxin effect in reducing phytohemagglutinin- and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mitogenesis, though significant (P > 0.05), was not severe. Our data indicate a direct effect of T-2 toxin on native resistance to systemic salmonellosis, which was not accompanied by marked alteration in T- or B-cell responses to mitogenic stimulation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Inclusion of lactose in the diets of chickens has been determined to reduce cecal colonization with Salmonella typhimurium. We hypothesized, therefore, that dietary lactose may be a practical means for reducing the prevalence of Salmonella contamination of chicken products. Because some strains of Salmonella are atypical and ferment lactose, we investigated the effects of dietary lactose on cecal colonization with lactose-fermenting S typhimurium. Broiler chicks were inoculated intracloacally with Lac+ S typhimurium selected for resistance to novobiocin and rifampicin. The chicks also were inoculated orally with certain anaerobes that do not effectively inhibit colonization by S typhimurium, but do appear essential for lactose mediated inhibition of cecal colonization. Control chicks were not given dietary lactose, and chicks in the experimental group were fed a diet containing 7% lactose. Enumeration of Lac+ S typhimurium in cecal contents revealed dietary lactose to be effective at controlling this organism. Control was correlated with changes in cecal pH and increases in undissociated volatile fatty acids, especially propionic acid.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To enumerate the prevalence of Campylobacter isolates in the intestinal tract of market-weight swine raised in an integrated swine operation in Texas.

Sample Population

Samples of cecal contents were collected from 595 pigs (mean body weight, 110 kg [242 lb]) at time of slaughter. Pigs were offspring of Yorkshire-Landrace sows and Duroc or Hampshire boars. Pigs originated from 4 farrow-to-finish farms.


During a 9-month period, visits were made to a slaughter plant to remove cecal contents from market-weight hogs. Samples were obtained from 50 pigs/visit from designated farms so that samples were obtained 3 times from pigs of each of 4 farms. Isolation of Campylobacter spp was accomplished by use of enrichment broth and restrictive media, using microaerophilic conditions.


Campylobacter spp were isolated from 70 to 100% of the pigs, depending on the farm and the date the samples were collected. Campylobacter coli was isolated from 20 to 100% (mean, 60%) of samples, and C jejuni was isolated from 0 to 76% (mean, 31%) of samples. Campylobacter lari was isolated from 2 pigs. Concentrations of C coli or C jejuni ranged from 103 to 107 colony-forming units/g of cecal content.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Campylobacter coli generally is accepted as a common inhabitant of the intestinal tract of swine. However, analysis of results of this study suggests that a relatively high prevalence of C jejuni may be found in pigs raised on specific farms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1601–1604)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association