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The antigenic profile of Ehrlichia canis, E risticii, E sennetsu, and E equi was investigated by the use of protein (western) immunoblot technique. Results of analysis of serum from acutely and chronically infected animals indicated that the 4 Ehrlichia species share a unique 25- kD polypeptide in addition to other peptides. Immune sera from dogs inoculated with E canis recognized a wide range of E canis polypeptide antigens, as determined by western blot analysis. A larger number of E sennetsu polypeptides were detected when homologous antiserum and antiserum to E equi were used. The latter antiserum did not recognize antigens of E canis or E risticii. Antisera to E canis, E risticii, and E sennetsu detected E equi antigens. Data indicate that a 25-kD protein is a common antigen among the species of the genus Ehrlichia and that the ascending order of abundance of immunodominant determinants in the 4 species of Ehrlichia studied would be: E risticiiE equiE sennetsuE canis. Implications of these findings for diagnosis of ehrlichial infections and prophylaxis are evident.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Serum haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations were measured in swine that were naturally or experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In swine from a specific-pathogen-free herd, mean serum concentration of Hp (± SD) was 5.79 ± 1.06 mg of cyanmethemoglobin-binding capacity (CHBC/dl. Serum Hp concentrations in paired samples were measured at 7-day intervals in 40 swine randomly selected from a conventional herd that was experiencing an acute episode of pneumonia and deaths caused by A pleuropneumoniae serotype-5 infection. Day-0 and -7 serum Hp concentrations were 24.58 ± 1.38 and 23.10 ± 1.12 mg of CHBC/dl, respectively, with no significant difference between these measurements. In a second conventional herd with a history of chronic infection with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 5, serum concentrations of Hp measured in paired samples obtained 6 days apart were 12.36 ± 0.81 and 18.63 ± 0.76 mg of CHBC/dl, respectively, and were significantly (P < 0.05) different from each other. Twenty-nine 12-week-old conventional swine were challenged intranasally with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (n = 19) and serotype 5 (n = 10). Serum Hp concentration increased from prechallenge concentrations of 7.49 ± 1.38 and 15.10 ± 1.22 mg of CHBC/dl, respectively, to 41.01 ± 1.35 and 22.37 ± 1.78 mg of CHBC/dl, respectively, 72 hours after challenge. For these 29 swine, serum Hp concentration was positively correlated with rectal temperature (r = 0.34; P < 0.001) during the immediate postchallenge period.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe the geographic distribution of infections caused by Pythium insidiosum in dogs, horses, and other animal species in the US.


For the last 20 years, we have collected data from cases of pythiosis in 1,150 horses, 467 dogs, and other species (59) from various geographic locations in the US.


Due to lost data (from 2006 to 2016), the selected cases include years 2000 to 2005 and 2016 to 2020. The selection of cases was based on infected host clinical features, serum samples demonstrating strong positive anti–P insidiosum IgG titers in serologic assays, and positive results on ≥ 1 of the following diagnostic modalities: microbial culture on 2% Sabouraud dextrose agar, histologic evaluation, PCR assay, and wet mount cytologic evaluation (with potassium hydroxide).


Most confirmed P insidiosum infections were found in horses and dogs in the southeastern US. Interestingly, in Texas, no cases were found west of longitude 100°W. Few pythiosis cases were diagnosed in west-coast states. Equine cases were more often diagnosed during summer and fall months, but canine cases were more often diagnosed between September and February. Cases in other species were discovered in the same geographic areas as those in dogs and horses.


To our knowledge, this is the first report providing the ecological distribution of P insidiosum infection in affected species in the US. Results of this study illustrated the importance of including P insidiosum in the differential diagnostic scheme of nonhealing skin lesions or intestinal granulomatous masses, particularly in dogs and horses inhabiting or having visited endemic areas.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association