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- Author or Editor: Richard Eicher x
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Objective—To describe myoelectric activity of the spiral colon in healthy cows.
Animals—7 lactating Simmental X Red-Holstein crossbred cows.
Procedure—Cows were implanted with 7 pairs of bipolar silver electrodes (4 in the spiral colon and 1 each in the cecum, distal part of the ileum, and proximal loop of the ascending colon [PLAC]). Myo-electric activity was recorded during 4 days for each cow. Patterns were analyzed, using computer-based methods.
Results—Myoelectric activity of the spiral colon was closely associated with motility of the ileum and PLAC and showed the typical organization of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC). The MMC in the bovine spiral colon (bcMMC) had a mean ± SD duration of 188.6 ± 30.8 minutes and was divided into 4 phases. Phases I and II lasted 11.3 ± 1.4 and 159.4 ± 33.3 minutes, respectively. Phase III (duration, 5.4 ± 1.2 minutes) was characterized by 5.2 ± 0.9 regular spindles (35.4 ± 5.4 seconds) and 1 final elongated spindle (137.2 ± 56.4 seconds). Phase III most commonly (73.8 ± 16.1%) was followed by phase IV (duration, 17.3 ± 3.6 minutes). Propagation velocity of phase III was 4.4 ± 0.5 cm/min, and 13.6% of bcMMC were incompletely propagated through the spiral colon.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Myoelectric activity of the bovine spiral colon is composed of a recurring cyclic pattern similar to MMC of the small intestine. Data of colonic myoelectric activity in healthy cows will serve as a basis for studies on cecal dilatation and dislocation in cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:78–93)
Objective—To describe myoelectric patterns in the intestines of cows after electrode implantation.
Animals—7 lactating Simmental-Red Holstein cows.
Procedure—Cows were implanted with 7 pairs of bipolar silver electrodes (1 each in the ileum, cecum, and proximal loop of the ascending colon (PLAC) and 4 in the spiral colon). Myoelectric activity was monitored during 10 periods within the first 3 weeks after surgery. Recordings from the first 2 weeks were compared with recordings from the third week, which was considered a steady-state condition.
Results—Significant changes over time were detected for 18 of 57 variables, including 3 variables describing myoelectric activity of the ileum, 6 variables of the cecum, 6 variables of the PLAC, and 3 variables of the spiral colon. Compared with values for the steadystate condition, 16 variables differed significantly for the 14-day period after surgery (7 variables until day 11, 2 variables until day 8, 4 variables until day 5, 1 variable until day 3, and 2 variables until day 2 after electrode implantation). None of the variables had significant changes that lasted only 1 day after surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant changes were observed for several variables of myoelectric activity in all intestinal segments until as late as 11 days after electrode implantation, whereas a steady-state condition was reached 14 days after surgery. Effects of drugs, manipulations, or nutrition regimens on myoelectric activity of the bovine digestive tract should be evaluated no sooner than 2 weeks after electrode implantation. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:797–805)
Objective—To describe the effects of an abrupt increase of concentrates in the diet of dairy cows on myoelectric activity of the spiral colon and on fermentation patterns in the rumen and large intestine.
Animals—6 healthy lactating Simmental X Red- Holstein cows.
Procedure—The diet of 6 cows implanted with bipolar electrodes in the spiral colon was changed from hay only to a ration of 50% hay:50% starch-rich concentrates during a period of 60 hours. Myoelectric activity of the spiral colon, concentrations of absolute and undissociated volatile fatty acids (VFA), and pH of ruminal and large intestinal contents were monitored before, during, and after the dietary change.
Results—Significant changes in patterns of myoelectric activity of the spiral colon were restricted to phases III and IV of the bovine migrating myoelectric complex and to propagation velocity. Significant alterations were not observed in pH or VFA concentrations in ruminal fluid, but pH decreased and VFA concentrations increased significantly in fecal specimens after the change of diet.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Although rumen fluid is of limited value for measurement of certain indicators of fermentation, fecal samples can be used for measurement of pH and VFA concentrations, which serve as indicators of fermentation patterns in the large intestine. Increased concentrations of VFA and low pH in large intestinal digesta have a minimal influence on myoelectric activity of the spiral colon. Increased luminal VFA concentrations are unlikely to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of motility disorders of the large intestine in cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:857–867)
Objective—To characterize and compare in vitro contractility patterns of sections of abomasal wall harvested from cattle of 3 dairy breeds.
Sample Population—Longitudinal and circular smooth muscle preparations harvested from the antrum and body of the abomasum of 30 recently slaughtered Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Simmental X Red Holstein cows.
Procedure—Spontaneous isometric contractions of specimens in tissue baths of modified Krebs solution were recorded during a 4-hour period. Maximal amplitude, frequency of contractions, and change of basal tension were used to characterize contractility. Statistical analyses were used to test for differences among time periods, among breeds, between specimen locations, and between fiber orientations.
Results—Myoactivity patterns of abomasal smooth muscle preparations are highly variable and differ on the basis of location and fiber orientation. Frequency of contractions differed significantly among time periods for longitudinally oriented specimens with decreasing frequencies of contractions over time. Maximal amplitude of the longitudinally oriented specimens from the antrum increased significantly, whereas maximal amplitude of the circularly oriented specimens from the antrum decreased significantly. Values did not differ significantly among breeds.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Patterns of spontaneous contractility of abomasal wall specimens are not homogeneous. During a 4-hour recording period, maximal amplitude and frequency of contractions of specimens varied significantly with respect to orientation and location; however, spontaneous contractile myoactivity did not differ significantly among breeds. Therefore, breed predisposition for displaced abomasum is not correlated with spontaneous activity of smooth muscle specimens. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1687–1694)
Objective—To compare the effect of various concentrations of sodium butyric acid and sodium valerianic acid, as well as various osmolarities, on contractility of ex-vivo intestinal wall specimens obtained from the cecum and spiral colon of each of several healthy cows.
Sample Population—Full-thickness preparations of intestinal wall, dissected parallel to the longitudinal smooth muscle layers, harvested from freshly slaughtered healthy cows.
Procedure—Specimens of intestinal wall were incubated for 5 minutes with various concentrations of sodium butyric acid and sodium valerianic acid as well as various osmolar concentrations of NaCl, using a crossover design. Isometric contractions were induced 7 times with carbachol (CH; 5 X 10–6 mol/L). Contractility was defined as the maximum amplitude of contraction and the amplitude of contraction 2 minutes after addition of CH.
Results—Repeated addition of CH did not result in a significant effect on contractility of specimens from the cecum and spiral colon. Contractility after addition of CH was not significantly affected by prior incubation with various concentrations of sodium butyric acid or sodium valerianic acid or after an increase of osmolarity. Maximum amplitude of contraction was significantly higher in specimens from the spiral colon, compared with specimens from the cecum.
Conclusions—Increases in concentrations of sodium butyric acid or sodium valerianic acid and increases in osmolarity did not inhibit contractility of intestinal wall specimens from the cecum and spiral colon of a group of healthy cows. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 678–683)