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Summary

The ability of computed tomography and radiography to detect changes associated with nasal neoplasia was compared in dogs. Eighteen areas or anatomic structures were evaluated in 21 dogs for changes indicative of neoplasia. Computed tomography was superior (P ≤ 0.05) to radiography for detecting changes in 14 of 18 areas. Radiography was not superior for detecting changes in any structure or area. Computed tomography reveals vital information not always detected radiographically to assist in providing a prognosis and in planning treatment for nasal neoplasms in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of intra-articular administration of autologous conditioned serum (ACS) in the treatment of experimentally induced osteoarthritis in horses.

Animals—16 horses.

Procedures—Osteoarthritis was induced arthroscopically in 1 middle carpal joint of all horses. In 8 placebo- and 8 ACS-treated horses, 6 mL of PBS solution or 6 mL of ACS was injected into the osteoarthritis-affected joint on days 14, 21, 28, and 35, respectively; PBS solution was administered in the other sham-operated joints. Evaluations included clinical assessment of lameness and synovial fluid analysis (performed biweekly); gross pathologic and histologic examinations of cartilage and synovial membrane samples were performed at necropsy.

Results—No adverse treatment-related events were detected. Horses that were treated with ACS had significant clinical improvement in lameness, unlike the placebo-treated horses. Among the osteoarthritis-affected joints, ACS treatment significantly decreased synovial membrane hyperplasia, compared with placebo-treated joints; although not significant, the ACS-treated joints also appeared to have less gross cartilage fibrillation and synovial membrane hemorrhage. The synovial fluid concentration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (assessed by use of mouse anti–interleukin-1 receptor antagonist antibody) was increased following treatment with ACS.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this controlled study indicated that there was significant clinical and histologic improvement in osteoarthritis-affected joints of horses following treatment with ACS, compared with placebo treatment. On the basis of these findings, further controlled clinical trials to assess this treatment are warranted, and investigation of the mechanisms of action of ACS should be pursued concurrently.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of a combination of avocado and soybean unsaponifiable (ASU) extracts for the treatment of experimentally induced osteoarthritis in horses.

Animals—16 horses.

Procedures—Osteoarthritis was induced via osteochondral fragmentation in 1 middle carpal joint of each horse; the other joint underwent a sham operation. Horses were randomly allocated to receive oral treatment with ASU extracts (1:2 [avocado-to-soybean] ratio mixed in 6 mL of molasses; n = 8) or molasses (6 mL) alone (placebo treatment; 8) once daily from days 0 to 70. Lameness, response to joint flexion, synovial effusion, gross and histologic joint assessments, and serum and synovial fluid biochemical data were compared between treatment groups to identify effects of treatment.

Results—Osteochondral fragmentation induced significant increases in various variables indicative of joint pain and disease. Treatment with ASU extracts did not have an effect on signs of pain or lameness; however, there was a significant reduction in severity of articular cartilage erosion and synovial hemorrhage (assessed grossly) and significant increase in articular cartilage glycosaminoglycan synthesis, compared with placebo-treated horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although treatment with ASU extracts did not decrease clinical signs of pain in horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis, there did appear to be a disease-modifying effect of treatment, compared with findings in placebotreated horses. These objective data support the use of ASU extracts as a disease-modifying treatment for management of osteoarthritis in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Thirty cubital joints from 16 dogs suspected of having a fragmented medial coronoid process were examined. Four breeds accounted for 87.5% of the cases: German Shepherd Dog (25%), Labrador Retriever (25%), Rottweiler (18.75%), and Golden Retriever (18.75%). Seventy-five percent of the dogs were male. Mean age of affected dogs was 13.6 months. Plain-film radiography, xeroradiography, linear tomography, arthrography, and computed tomography were performed on each cubital joint prior to surgical exploration of the joint. Three reviewers evaluated each diagnostic study and independently determined whether a fragment from the medial coronoid process could be seen. The consensus opinion was compared with the finding at surgery. Abnormalities of the medial coronoid process were detected in 25 of 30 joints at surgery. Fragmented coronoid process was found in 17 of 30 joints, and wear lesions were observed in 8 of 30 joints. Computed tomography had the highest accuracy (86.7%), sensitivity (88.2%), and negative-predictive value (84.6%) of the 5 imaging modalities evaluated (P < 0.05). Specificity and positive-predictive value of all imaging techniques were high. There was no significant difference between the diagnostic ability of plain-film radiography, xeroradiography, or linear tomography of the cubital joint. The combination of plain-film radiography and linear tomography provided an improvement in accuracy, approaching that of computed tomography.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A technique for arthrography of the cubital joint in clinically normal large-breed dogs was developed with the objective of improving visualization of the articular margin of the medial coronoid process. A lateral approach to the cubital joint for injection of contrast medium was selected. Arthrography of 24 cubital joints was performed by using 14 dogs. Twelve combinations of iodinated contrast medium, consisting of various concentrations (3) and volumes (4), were used. Two sets of arthrograms for each of the 12 combinations of contrast medium were obtained. Five radiographic views were used for each set.

All arthrograms were examined by 3 evaluators, and each articular surface received a numerical rating for how well it could be seen in each view. Results of the evaluation indicated that low volumes of contrast medium were preferable to high volumes, with 2 ml providing the best visualization. Concentration of iodine seemed less important than did volume.

The numerical ratings also indicated that the articular margin of the coronoid process was clearly observed a maximum of only 24% of the time on a slightly supinated mediolateral projection. The articular margins of the head of the radius, trochlea humeri, and trochlear notch were well visualized > 90% of the time.

Arthrography of the cubital joint was technically easy to perform, and complications were not encountered, but arthrographic anatomy of the cubital joint is complex. Potential uses for arthrography of the cubital joint include diagnosis of osteochondrosis, intraarticular fragments, and joint capsule ruptures.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of treadmill exercise on subchondral bone of carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints of 2-year-old horses.

Animals—12 healthy 2-year-old horses.

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to the control (n = 6) or exercised (6) groups. Horses in the exercised group ran on a high-speed treadmill 5 d/wk for 6 months. Horses in the control group were hand walked for the same amount of time. Results of clinical, radiographic, nuclear scintigraphic, and computed tomographic examinations, and serum and synovial concentrations of biochemical markers of bone metabolism were compared between groups.

Results—Exercised horses were significantly lamer at the end of the study than control horses. Radionuclide uptake in the metacarpal condyles, but not in the carpal joints, was greater in exercised horses, compared with control horses. Exercised horses also had a higher subchondral bone density in the metacarpal condyles than control horses, but such differences were not detected in the carpal bones.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—None of the diagnostic techniques evaluated was sufficiently sensitive to detect all osteochondral damage. Computed tomography and computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry were superior to conventional radiography for detecting small osteochondral fragments. Nuclear scintigraphy was a sensitive indicator of subchondral bone change but lacked specificity for describing lesions and discerning normal bone remodeling from damage. Newer techniques such as computed tomography may help clinicians better diagnose early and subtle joint lesions in horses prior to development of gross joint damage. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1252–1258)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate whether cutting equine subchondral bone to demarcate specific regions of interest (ROIs) influences the mean density for that bone as measured via quantitative computed tomography (QCT).

Sample population—2 metacarpophalangeal joints from equine cadavers.

Procedures—The distal portion of the third metacarpal bone of each intact metacarpophalangeal joint was scanned via CT to simulate in vivo conditions. Each joint was subsequently disarticulated and dissected, and the distal portion of the dissected third metacarpal bone in air was scanned. Then, six 1-cm2 areas representing ROIs were cut into the distal condylar surfaces to depths of approximately 1 cm, and the bone was scanned again. Three-dimensional CT models of the 3 bone preparations were generated for each third metacarpal bone on the basis of data from each set of scan images, and densities of the 6 ROIs were measured. Mean bone densities for the 6 ROIs were compared among models of intact, dissected, and cut third metacarpal bone scans.

Results—Mean bone density was significantly lower in cut bone preparations, compared with that in intact or dissected bone. Differences between mean bone densities for intact and dissected bone preparations were not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cutting subchondral bone to demarcate specific ROIs prior to CT imaging significantly lowered mean bone density as measured via QCT and thus introduced substantial artifacts. These findings have direct implications on techniques for CT modeling of equine subchondral bone in the characterization of joint diseases in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for development of excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA) in large-breed dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD).

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—58 dogs with excessive TPAs (ie, TPA ≥ 35°; case dogs) and 58 dogs with normal TPAs (ie, TPA ≤ 30°; control dogs).

Procedures—Medical records and radiographs were reviewed and owners were interviewed to identify potential risk factors for excessive TPA.

Results—Case dogs were 3 times (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 8.0) as likely to have been neutered before 6 months of age as were control dogs. Case dogs with TPA ≥ 35° in both limbs were 13.6 times (95% confidence interval, 2.72 to 68.1) as likely to have been neutered before 6 months of age as were control dogs with TPA ≤ 30° in both limbs. Case dogs were significantly younger at the onset of hind limb lameness than were control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that early neutering was a significant risk factor for development of excessive TPA in large-breed dogs with CCLD. Further research into the effects of early neutering on TPA and the pathophysiology of CCLD is warranted.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association