Procedures—A radiolabeled test meal was offered immediately after oral administration of a WMC. Serial static scintigraphic abdominal images were acquired for 270 minutes. A dedicated remote receiver was used for data collection from the WMC until the WMC was expelled in the feces. Each dog was evaluated 3 times at intervals of 1 to 2 weeks.
Results—Mean gastric emptying half-time measured by use of scintigraphy (T1/2-GES) for each dog ranged from 99.9 to 181.2 minutes. Mean gastric emptying time (GET) measured by use of the WMC (GET-WMC) in each dog ranged from 385.3 to 669.7 minutes. Mean coefficient of variation was 11.8% for T1/2-GES and 7.8% for GET-WMC. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 69% for T1/2-GES and 71% for GET-WMC. Results for a nested analysis of covariance suggested that both methods were comparable for the evaluation of gastric emptying.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Scintigraphy and a WMC system had similar variation for assessment of gastric emptying. Moderate intraindividual variability was detected for both methods and must be considered when interpreting test results for individual dogs. Repeatability of measurements obtained by use of the WMC was equivalent to that obtained by use of scintigraphy. The WMC system offers a nonradioactive, user-friendly method for assessment of gastric emptying in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To compare blood pressure measured noninvasively with an oscillometric device that involved use of a novel conical cuff and a traditional cylindrical blood pressure cuff.
ANIMALS 17 adult hound-type dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized, and a 20-gauge, 1.5-inch catheter was inserted in the median sacral artery. The catheter was attached to a pressure transducer via fluid-filled noncompliant tubing, and direct blood pressure was recorded with a multifunction monitor. A specially fabricated conical cuff was placed on the antebrachium. Four sets of direct and indirect blood pressure measurements were simultaneously collected every 2 minutes. Four sets of measurements were then obtained by use of a cylindrical cuff.
RESULTS The cylindrical cuff met American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus guidelines for validation of indirect blood pressure measurements for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP). The conical cuff met the consensus guidelines for difference of paired measurements, SD, and percentages of measurements within 10 and 20 mm Hg of the value for the reference method, but it failed a correlation analysis. In addition, although bias for the conical cuff was less than that for the cylindrical cuff for SAP, MAP, and DAP measurements, the limits of agreement for the conical cuff were wider than those for the cylindrical cuff for SAP and MAP measurements.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE On the basis of results of this study, use of a conical cuff for oscillometric blood pressure measurement cannot be recommended.
Objective—To characterize the effects of pentoxifylline on the gross and microscopic variables associated with immediate and late-phase inflammation following injection of IgE-specific antibodies in the skin of clinically normal dogs.
Animals—6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Intradermal injections (0.1 mL each) of PBS solution, histamine phosphate, and cross-linking rabbit-origin anti-canine IgE antibodies (3 injections/dog) were administered at 0 hours on day 0; wheal sizes were evaluated at 20 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours. Biopsy specimens of injected and noninjected skin were collected 24 hours after injection. On day 2, treatment with pentoxifylline (20 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) was initiated and continued until day 30. For each dog, injection, measurement, and biopsy procedures were repeated on days 30 to 31 and on days 37 to 38 (ie, after discontinuation of pentoxifylline administration).
Results—Pentoxifylline administration was associated with a significant decrease in wheal size at 6 and 24 hours (but not at 20 minutes) after injection of anti-canine IgE. Repeated injections performed 1 week after drug discontinuation revealed partial recovery of the 6-hour cutaneous reaction and complete recovery of the 24-hour cutaneous reaction. Pentoxifylline administration was also associated with inhibition of mast cell degranulation and significant decreases in the total numbers of cutaneous inflammatory cells and eosinophils, compared with pretreatment findings.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In clinically normal dogs, pentoxifylline effectively impaired late-phase reactions but not immediate reactions at sites of intradermal injection of IgE-specific antibodies by inhibiting mast cell degranulation and recruitment of cutaneous inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils.