Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: Reyneld D. Stevens x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Objective

To evaluate the effects of treatment at parturition with dinoprost tromethamine, fenprostalene, or oxytocin on postpartum disease and reproductive performance during the subsequent breeding season in dairy cows.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

1,400 Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairies.

Procedure

Cows were assigned within 2 hours after calving to serve as untreated control cows or to be treated with 1 mg of fenprostalene, SC; 25 mg of dinoprost tromethamine, IM; or 20 IU of oxytocin, IM. Cows were confined to treatment pens and monitored daily until fetal membranes were expelled. Cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) were treated according to existing treatment protocols for the dairy, with the provision that intrauterine infusions were not allowed. All other disease conditions were recorded, and appropriate treatment was administered. Postpartum reproductive examinations were performed 28 to 56 days after parturition. Breeding records were maintained for all cows until pregnancy was confirmed or the cow was removed from the herd.

Results

Fetal membranes were retained in 12.1% of all cows, and this outcome was unaffected by treatment. Compared with cows without RFM, cows with RFM had longer intervals to first insemination (76.4 vs 82.0 days), reduced first insemination conception rates (46.8 vs 28.0%), and increased number of days not pregnant (103.2 vs 127.4 days). Farm, as a variable, significantly affected development of RFM and postpartum disease conditions as well as reproductive performance during the subsequent breeding season. Fetal membranes were retained in 12.4, 15.2, 8.7, 6.3, and 16.9% of cows on farms 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Mean days to first insemination varied from 64.5 days (farm 3) to 91.5 days (farm 1). Mean number of days not pregnant varied from 94.8 days (farm 3) to 115.9 days (farm 4).

Clinical Implications

Administration of prostaglandins or oxytocin at the time of calving does not reduce the incidence of RFM or improve reproductive performance. Farm management practices have the greatest impact on dairy cow performance. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1280–1284)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Dairy cows (n = 207) that had retained fetal membranes for more than 8 hours after parturition were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (group 1, daily intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline; group 2, daily intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline and a single SC injection of fenprostalene; group 3, a single SC injection of fenprostalene; and group 4, untreated controls). Cows were monitored daily. Subsequent disease conditions were recorded, and appropriate treatments were initiated. Interval from parturition to expulsion of fetal membranes was unaffected by treatment regimen. The frequency of cows with high rectal temperatures (≥ 39.5 C) was significantly (P < 0.05) less in cows treated with oxytetracycline infusions; however, the frequency of displaced abomasum, ketosis, and mastitis was unaffected by treatment method. Treatment method appeared to influence the development of postpartum uterine pathologic conditions. Treatment with oxytetracycline and fenprostalene (group 2) increased (P < 0.05) the frequency of pyometra. Treatment with fenprostalene (groups 2 and 3) decreased the number of cows with a palpable uterine lumen detectable during per rectal palpation at 28 to 42 days after parturition. Reproductive efficiency, as determined on the basis of the interval from parturition to conception, was unaffected by treatment protocol.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To establish the maximum concentration and duration of oxytetracycline residues in milk from cows with retained fetal membranes given the antimicrobial via intrauterine infusion, and to investigate whether the number of infusions or the presence of fever (> 39.7 C) affected the duration of residues.

Design—

Prospective study.

Animals—

54 Holstein cows with retained fetal membranes on a single 1,400-cow commercial dairy.

Procedure—

Cows were treated once a day with 5 g of oxytetracycline (50 ml of 100 mg/ml solution in a povidone base) by intrauterine infusion for at least 2 days, or until the membranes were expelled. Cows that became febrile (rectal temperature > 39.7 C) were also given 20,000 IU of procaine penicillin G/kg of body weight, IM, for 2 to 4 days. Milk samples were collected at 24-hour intervals during treatment, and at 12-hour intervals after the last treatment. All samples were frozen and submitted every 2 weeks for high performance liquid chromatography analysis for oxytetracycline.

Results—

Oxytetracycline was detected in milk of all cows during treatment, at a maximum concentration ranging from 47.2 to 1,804.6 μg/kg (mean, 316.9 μg/kg). Duration of oxytetracycline residues after the last infusion ranged from 0 to 144 hours (mean, 52.3 hours). Neither the number of infusions received, nor development of rectal temperature > 39.7 C, affected the maximum concentration or the duration of oxytetracycline residues in milk.

Clinical Implications—

Milk obtained from cows that had been treated for retained fetal membranes by intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline should be discarded to avoid illegal residues. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1753–1755)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association