OBJECTIVE To compare total protein (TP) concentrations in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay.
DESIGN Diagnostic test evaluation.
SAMPLE Data regarding 92 pleural and 148 abdominal fluid specimens from dogs with various diseases.
PROCEDURES TP concentrations in fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay were recorded. Strength of association between sets of measurements was assessed by Spearman rank correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Optimal concentration cutoff for diagnostic discrimination between exudate and nonexudate was identified by construction of receiver operating characteristic curves.
RESULTS Median TP concentration in pleural fluid specimens was 2.7 g/dL (range, 0.3 to 4.8 g/dL) for refractometry and 2.9 g/dL (range, 0.7 to 5.8 g/dL) for biuret assay. Median TP concentration in abdominal fluid specimens was 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.1 to 6.0 g/dL) for refractometry and 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.6 to 5.7 g/dL) for biuret assay. Correlation was significant between refractometric and biuret results for pleural (ρ = 0.921) and abdominal (ρ = 0.908) fluid. Bland-Altman plots revealed bias of −0.18 g/dL for pleural fluid and −0.03 g/dL for abdominal fluid for refractometry versus biuret assay. With a TP concentration of ≥ 3 g/dL used to distinguish exudate from nonexudate, sensitivity of refractometry was 77% for pleural fluid and 80% for abdominal fluid. Specificity was 100% and 94%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Refractometry yielded acceptable results for measurement of TP concentration in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens, providing a more rapid and convenient method than biuret assay. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:789–794)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes for dogs with mycotic rhinitis-rhinosinusitis (MRR) treated by meticulous debridement and topical application of 1% clotrimazole cream and investigate potential prognostic factors that could help predict whether 1 or multiple treatments would be needed for clinical resolution of the condition.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 64 dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs treated for MRR by meticulous debridement and topical application of 1% clotrimazole cream. Signalment, clinical signs, previous treatments, CT findings, presence of unilateral or bilateral disease, predisposing factors, number and type of treatments, and complications were recorded. Outcome information was obtained from records or by telephone interview with owners. Association of selected factors with the number of treatments needed for clinical resolution was evaluated.
RESULTS Clotrimazole was instilled via the trephination site (n = 42) or under endoscopic guidance (22). Thirteen dogs underwent a 5-minute flush with 1% clotrimazole solution prior to cream application, and 34 received adjunctive oral itraconazole treatment. The MRR was deemed resolved in 58 dogs, and clinical signs persisted in 1 dog. Five dogs died (2 of causes unrelated to MRR) ≤ 1 month after treatment. The first treatment was successful in 42 of 62 (68%) dogs; overall success rate was 58 of 62 (94%). No prognostic factors for the number of treatments needed to provide clinical resolution were identified. Seven dogs with reinfection were successfully retreated.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical treatment by meticulous debridement and 1% clotrimazole cream application had results similar to or better than those described in other studies of dogs with MRR. Trephination or adjunctive itraconazole treatment did not influence the number of treatments needed for a successful outcome.
Objective—To directly compare solid-phase gastric emptying times assessed by means of a [13C]sodium acetate breath test ([13C]-SABT) and technetium Tc 99m albumin colloid radioscintigraphy (99mTc-ACR) in healthy cats.
Animals—12 healthy cats.
Procedure—After ingestion of a test meal containing 50 mg of [13C]sodium acetate and 250 MBq of 99mTc-albumin colloid, each cat underwent simultaneous [13C]-SABT and 99mTc-ACR on 2 consecutive days. Breath samples and scintigrams were acquired at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 360, 480, and 600 minutes after meal ingestion. Quartiles of gastric emptying (25%, 50%, and 75%) were calculated for breath test analysis by use of the area under the curve of the 13C:12C ratio. Quartiles of gastric emptying times were extrapolated from the scintigraphic findings by beans of nonlinear curve regression analysis.
Results—Mean ± SD gastric half-emptying (50%) times obtained with [13C]-SABT and 99mTc-ACR, were 239 ± 28 minutes and 276 ± 59 minutes, respectively. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that mean gastric emptying times determined with [13C]-SABT and 99mTc-ACR differed significantly. For the stages of gastric emptying, Pearson correlation between the 2 methods was good at 25% (r = 0.655) and weak at 50% (r = 0.588) and 75% (r = 0.566)of gastric emptying.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the [13C]-SABT can be a valid alternative to 99mTc-ACR in healthy cats; it was easy to perform, was tolerated well by the cats, and had acceptable correlation to scintigraphic findings at gastric emptying of 25%, 50% and 75%. Studies in cats with delayed gastric emptying will be needed to verify the validity of the [13C]-SABT.