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  • Author or Editor: Renee M. Tsolis x
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Objective—To evaluate hematologic and serum biochemical changes in Salmonella ser Typhimurium infected calves.

Animals—16 male 3- to 4-week-old dairy calves.

Procedure—13 calves were experimentally infected with S Typhimurium (strains IR715 and CS401, which are derivatives of ATCC 14028), and 3 calves were uninfected controls. Several hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were measured.

Results—Hematologic changes included increases in PCV, RBC count, and hemoglobin concentration, associated with a transitory leukopenia characterized by neutropenia and lymphopenia. Biochemical findings included hypoglycemia, increased BUN, creatinine, and fibrinogen concentrations, and decreased sodium, total CO2, calcium, total protein, and albumin concentrations. Increased total bilirubin concentration associated with decreased conjugated bilirubin concentration was also observed. No significant changes in aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine kinase activities were detecte

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Experimental salmonellosis of calves results in marked to severe dehydration, accompanied by metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and an acute inflammatory response associated with increased fibrinogen concentrations and severe neutropenia immediately after inoculation. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1145–1150)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the importance of iron for in vitro growth of Rhodococcus equi, define potential iron sources in the environment and mechanisms by which R equi may obtain iron from the environment, and assess expression and immunogenicity of iron-regulated proteins.

Sample Population—10 virulent and 11 avirulent strains of R equi.

Procedure—In vitro growth rates and protein patterns of R equi propagated in media with normal, excess, or limited amounts of available iron were compared. Immunoblot analyses that used serum from foals naturally infected with R equi and monoclonal antibody against virulence-associated protein (Vap)A were conducted to determine immunogenicity and identity of expressed proteins.

Results—Excess iron did not alter growth of any R equi strains, whereas growth of all strains was significantly decreased in response to limited amounts of available iron. Virulent R equi were able to use iron from ferrated deferoxamine, bovine transferrin, and bovine lactoferrin. Only virulent R equi expressed an iron-regulated, immunogenic, surface-associated protein identified as VapA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Iron is required for the growth and survival of R equi. Sources of iron for R equi, and mechanisms by which R equi acquire iron in vivo, may represent important virulence factors and novel targets for the development of therapeutic and immunoprophylactic strategies to control R equi infection in foals. Expression of VapA is substantially upregulated when there is a limited amount of available iron. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1337–1346)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research