Objective—To identify factors associated with interest in or choosing a career in rural veterinary practice (RVP).
Design—Cross-sectional descriptive study.
Sample Population—Veterinarians and veterinary students in the United States.
Procedures—Veterinary students and veterinarians in any area of practice were solicited to participate in an online survey through invitation letters sent to various veterinary associations. Proportions of respondents assigning high importance to various factors were analyzed for differences among gender, age, and background groups.
Results—1,216 responses were received. In general, survey respondents indicated that RVP could be characterized as the practice of veterinary medicine in any community where agriculture represented a significant part of the local economy. Responses also indicated that RVP should not be confused with large animal or food animal exclusive practice. Most respondents (38.9%) developed an interest in RVP early in life (before 8th grade), with 13.0% reportedly developing their interest in RVP during veterinary school. The most highly ranked factors with regard to influence on developing an interest in RVP were having relatives with a farm background, having a veterinarian in RVP as a mentor, and exposure to RVP during veterinary school. Gender, generational category, background (rural vs urban), and livestock experience were significantly associated with when respondents developed an interest in RVP and with factors important in developing that interest.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that various factors are associated with interest in and choosing a career in RVP. These factors should be considered when strategies for increasing interest and encouraging careers in RVP are planned.
Objective—To identify factors associated with veterinarians leaving a career in rural veterinary practice (RVP).
Design—Cross-sectional descriptive study.
Sample Population—Veterinarians from the United States who no longer worked in RVP.
Procedures—Veterinarians in any area of practice were solicited to participate in an online survey through invitation letters sent to various veterinary associations. Those who indicated that they had left RVP were asked to rank the importance of various potential factors in their decision to leave RVP.
Results—805 responses were obtained from veterinarians who had worked in RVP, of which 246 (30.6%) had left RVP. Most (231/246 [93.9%]) of those who reported leaving RVP had been in practice > 5 years, and 75.2% (185/246) had been in practice > 12 years. Eighty-three (33.7%) who left RVP pursued careers in urban areas, 72 (29.3%) entered academia, and 7 (2.8%) retired. Reasons for leaving RVP ranked by the highest proportions of respondents as being of high importance were emergency duty, time off, salary, practice atmosphere, and family concerns. Women ranked factors such as time off, mentorship, practice atmosphere, conflict with staff, and gender issues as being of high importance more often than men did.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the perceived shortage of veterinarians in RVP may be in part influenced by a lack of retention, particularly among experienced veterinarians. Targeted efforts to tackle issues related to emergency duty, time off, salary, practice atmosphere, and family issues could help alleviate the efflux from RVP.
OBJECTIVE To validate the effectiveness of a penetrating captive bolt device with a built-in low-pressure air channel pithing mechanism (PCBD) as a 1-step method for euthanasia of cattle.
DESIGN Clinical trial.
ANIMALS 66 feedlot steers and heifers (weight, 227 to 500 kg [500 to 1,100 lb]) that were not expected to survive or finish the feeding period with their cohorts.
PROCEDURES Cattle were transported to a university facility and euthanized with the PCBD. For each calf, clinical variables were monitored and recorded immediately before and for at least 10 minutes after application of the PCBD. Following euthanasia, the head of each calf was removed and trauma to the brain and skull was assessed and scored.
RESULTS Death was successfully achieved with the PCBD without application of an ancillary technique in all 66 cattle; however, 4 (6%) cattle required a second or third shot from the PCBD because of technical errors in its placement. All shots from the PCBD that entered the cranial vault successfully rendered cattle unconscious without a return to sensibility.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the PCBD was an effective 1-step method of euthanasia for use in mass depopulation of feedlot cattle.
Objective—To evaluate associations between neonatal serum IgG1 concentration and pre- and postweaning morbidity and mortality rates and average daily gains (ADGs) in beef calves and define a cutoff point for serum IgG1 concentration necessary for optimal health and performance of beef calves.
Design—Nonconcurrent cohort study.
Animals—1,568 crossbred beef calves.
Procedure—Single radial immunodiffusion was used to quantitate IgG1 concentration in sera collected from calves between 24 and 72 hours after birth. Logistic regression, ANCOVA, and likelihood ratios were used to analyze data.
Results—In the preweaning period, lower perinatal IgG1 concentrations were significantly associated with higher morbidity rates, higher mortality rates, and lower ADGs. Calves with serum IgG1 concentration < 2,400 mg/dL were 1.6 times as likely to become ill before weaning and 2.7 times as likely to die before weaning as calves with higher serum IgG1 concentrations. Calves with serum IgG1 concentration of at least 2,700 mg/dL weighed an estimated 3.35 kg (7.38 lb) more at 205 days of age than calves with lower serum IgG1 concentration. No significant association of serum IgG1 concentration with feedlot morbidity, death, or ADG was identified.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of likelihood ratios, the threshold of serum IgG1 concentration for optimal health and performance of calves was higher than values reported previously. Implementation and maintenance of management and intervention strategies designed for early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer will likely result in increases in preweaning health and performance parameters.
Objective—To compare neutralizing antibody response
between horses vaccinated against West Nile virus
(WNV) and horses that survived naturally occurring
Design—Cross-sectional observational study.
Animals—187 horses vaccinated with a killed WNV vaccine
and 37 horses with confirmed clinical WNV infection.
Procedure—Serum was collected from vaccinated
horses prior to and 4 to 6 weeks after completion of
an initial vaccination series (2 doses) and 5 to 7
months later. Serum was collected from affected
horses 4 to 6 weeks after laboratory diagnosis of
infection and 5 to 7 months after the first sample was
obtained. The IgM capture ELISA, plaque reduction
neutralization test (PRNT), and microtiter virus neutralization
test were used.
Results—All affected horses had PRNT titers ≥ 1:100 at
4 to 6 weeks after onset of disease, and 90% (18/20)
maintained this titer for 5 to 7 months. After the second
vaccination, 67% of vaccinated horses had PRNT titers
≥ 1:100 and 14% had titers < 1:10. Five to 7 months
later, 33% (28/84) of vaccinated horses had PRNT titers
≥ 1:100, whereas 29% (24/84) had titers < 1:10.
Vaccinated and clinically affected horses' end point
titers had decreased by 5 to 7 months after vaccination.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A portion of
horses vaccinated against WNV may respond poorly.
Vaccination every 6 months may be indicated in certain
horses and in areas of high vector activity. Other
preventative methods such as mosquito control are
warranted to prevent WNV infection in horses. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:240–245)