To investigate whether premedication with hydromorphone alone or combined with acepromazine or dexmedetomidine affects the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and regurgitation in dogs undergoing general anesthesia for elective orthopedic surgery.
39 healthy client-owned dogs undergoing general anesthesia for elective orthopedic surgery between November 2016 and November 2018.
For this prospective, randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial, dogs were randomly assigned to be premedicated with hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg, IM) alone (group H [control group]) or with either acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM; group AH) or dexmedetomidine (6 μg/kg, IM; group DH) before undergoing general anesthesia induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. A pH sensor–tipped probe was used to identify episodes of GER (esophageal pH < 4 or > 7.5 for ≥ 30 seconds). Results for GER, regurgitation, vomiting, propofol dose, and durations of food withholding and anesthesia were compiled and compared across groups.
There were 13 dogs in each group, and no meaningful differences were detected in age, body weight, sex, breed, or durations of anesthesia or food withholding across groups. Overall, 16 of the 39 (41%) dogs developed GER: 9 in group H, 6 in group AH, and 1 in group DH. The incidence of GER was significantly lower for group DH versus group H. Six of the 39 (15%) dogs regurgitated: 4 in group H and 2 in group AH.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The combined use of dexmedetomidine and hydromorphone as premedication may be a better choice to reduce GER in healthy dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery than would the use of hydromorphone with or without acepromazine. Additional research is warranted. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:695–700)
To determine whether implementation of a standardized perianesthetic protocol was associated with reduced incidence of postoperative regurgitation, pneumonia, and respiratory distress in brachycephalic dogs undergoing general anesthesia for airway surgery.
84 client-owned dogs.
A perianesthetic protocol that included preoperative administration of metoclopramide and famotidine, restrictive use of opioids, and recovery of patients in the intensive care unit was fully implemented for brachycephalic dogs in July 2014. Medical records of brachycephalic dogs (specifically Boston Terriers, French Bulldogs, English Bulldogs, and Pugs) undergoing anesthesia for airway surgery before (group A) and after (group B) protocol implementation were reviewed. Patient characteristics, administration of medications described in the protocol, surgical procedures performed, anesthesia duration, recovery location, and postoperative development of regurgitation, pneumonia, and respiratory distress were recorded. Data were compared between groups.
The proportion of dogs with postoperative regurgitation in group B (4/44 [9%]) was significantly lower than that in group A (14/40 [35%]). No intergroup differences in patient characteristics (including history of regurgitation), procedures performed, or anesthesia duration were found. Rates of development of postoperative pneumonia and respiratory distress did not differ between groups. A history of regurgitation was associated with development of postoperative regurgitation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Implementation of the described protocol was associated with decreased incidence of postoperative regurgitation in brachycephalic dogs undergoing anesthesia. Prospective studies are warranted to elucidate specific causes of this finding.