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  • Author or Editor: René van Weeren x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the mechanism that enables horses to partially counteract the shift of the center of pressure under the hoof induced by changes in hoof morphology attributable to growth and wear during a shoeing interval.

Animals—18 clinically sound Warmblood horses.

Procedures—Horses were evaluated 2 days and 8 weeks after shoeing during trotting on a track containing pressure-force measuring plates and by use of a synchronous infrared gait analysis system set at a frequency of 240 Hz. All feet were trimmed toward straight alignment of the proximal, middle, and distal phalanges and shod with standard flat shoes.

Results—Temporal characteristics such as stance time and the time between heel lift and toe off (ie, breakover duration) did not change significantly as a result of shoeing interval. Protraction and retraction angles of the limbs did not change. Compensation was achieved through an increase in the dorsal angle of the metacarpohalangeal or metarsophalangeal (fetlock) joint and a concomitant decrease of the dorsal angle of the hoof wall and fetlock. There was an additional compensatory mechanism in the hind limbs during the landing phase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses compensate for changes in hoof morphology that develop during an 8-week shoeing interval such that they are able to maintain their neuromuscular pattern of movement. The compensation consists of slight alterations in the angles between the distal segments of the limb. Insight into natural compensation mechanisms for hoof imbalance will aid in the understanding and treatment of pathologic conditions in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a modified digital imaging technique for quantitative assessment of the grade of osteoarthritis across the proximal articular surface of the first phalanx in horses.

Sample Population—6 metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joint specimens from 6 horses with various stages of osteoarthritis.

Procedure—First phalanx specimens, together with 4 gray scale reference calibration targets, were positioned in a bath with the proximal articular cartilage surface submerged in saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Digital images were obtained from the articular surface before and after staining with Indian ink. Computer-controlled gray level analysis of the nonstained and Indian ink-stained cartilage surfaces and gray scale reference calibration targets was performed by use of the mean pixel value (based on 255-gray scale). An increase in the mean pixel value after staining was used to calculate the cartilage degeneration index (CDI).

Results—The CDI of the proximal articular cartilage surface of the first phalanx specimens ranged from 9.2 ± 5.7 (early stage osteoarthritis) to 41.5 ± 3.6% (late stage osteoarthritis). The effect of repeating the measurement 6 times in nonstained (including repositioning) and stained specimens (including repositioning and restaining) was not significant. Up to 10 measurements of nonstained specimens could be made without refreshing the bath solution. In stained specimens, mean gray level increased significantly after the sixth measurement.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The modified digital imaging technique allowed quantitative assessment of cartilage degeneration across the articular cartilage surface. The CDI is the first quantitative measure for osteoarthritis-induced cartilage degeneration over an entire joint surface in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:83–87)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the validity of using skin-fixated markers to assess kinematics of the thoracolumbar vertebral column in horses.

Animals—5 Dutch Warmblood horses without abnormalities of the vertebral column.

Procedure—Kinematics of T6, T10, T13, T17, L1, L3, L5, S3, and both tuber coxae were determined by use of bone-fixated and skin-fixated markers. Threedimensional coordinate data were collected while horses were walking and trotting on a treadmill. Angular motion patterns were calculated and compared on the basis of 2-dimensional analysis of data from skin-fixated markers and 3-dimensional analysis of data from bone-fixated markers.

Results—Flexion-extension of thoracolumbar vertebrae and axial rotation of the sacrum were satisfactorily determined at both the walk and trot, using skinfixated markers. Data from skin-fixated markers were accurate for determining lateral bending at the walk in the midthoracic and lower lumbar portion of the vertebral column only. However, at the trot, data from skin-fixated markers were valid for determining lateral bending for all thoracolumbar vertebrae.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caution should be taken when interpreting data obtained by use of skin-fixated markers on lateral bending motions during the walk in horses. For determination of other rotations at the walk and all rotations at the trot, use of skin-fixated markers allows valid calculations of kinematics of the vertebral column. Understanding to what extent movements of skin-fixated markers reflect true vertebral motion is a compulsory step in developing noninvasive methods for diagnosing abnormalities of the vertebral column and related musculature in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:301–306)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the effects of age and joint disease on hydroxyproline and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentrations in synovial fluid from the metacarpophalangeal joint of horses and evaluate the association of those concentrations with severity of osteoarthritis and general matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity.

Sample Population—Synovial fluid was collected from the metacarpophalangeal joints of foals at birth (n = 10), 5-month-old foals (10), 11-month-old foals (5), and adult horses (73).

Procedure—Hydroxyproline and GAG concentrations were determined in synovial fluid samples. The severity of osteoarthritis in adult joints was quantified by use of a cartilage degeneration index (CDI) and assessment of general MMP-activity via a fluorogenic assay.

Results—Hydroxyproline and GAG concentrations in synovial fluid were highest in neonates and decreased with age. Concentrations reached a plateau in adults by 4 years and remained constant in healthy joints. In synovial fluid from osteoarthritic joints, hydroxyproline and GAG concentrations were not increased, compared with unaffected joints, but hydroxyproline were significantly correlated with the CDI and general MMP activity. There was no significant correlation between GAG concentration and CDI value or MMP activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Changes in hydroxyproline concentration in synovial fluid appeared to indicate damage to collagen of the articular cartilage. In joints with osteoarthritis, the lack of high GAG concentration in synovial fluid and the absence of a significant correlation between GAG concentration and CDI values or MMP activity may severely limit the usefulness of this marker for monitoring equine joint disease (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;65:296–302)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe a method of computerized ultrasonographic tissue characterization that includes structures below the size limits of resolution in equine superficial digital flexor tendons.

Sample Population—2 damaged and 2 structurally normal superficial digital flexor tendons.

Procedure—Transverse ultrasonographic images were collected along the tendon long axis. Stability of echo pattern was quantified by means of variation in gray levels of each pixel in contiguous images and expressed as correlation, entropy, and waviness ratios.

Results—Normal young and normal old tissues were characterized by high correlation and low entropy and waviness ratios. In necrotic tissue, collapsed intratendinous septa resulted in high correlation, moderate entropy, and high waviness ratios. In early granulation tissue, complete lack of bundle formation resulted in values of zero for correlation and waviness ratios; loose connective tissue matrix resulted in a high entropy ratio. In late granulation tissue, formation of new bundles resulted in a high correlation ratio; swollen intratendinous septa and incomplete organization of connective tissue matrix were reflected in high entropy and waviness ratios. In early fibrotic tissue, rearrangement of tendon bundles resulted in a correlation ratio within reference range and a slight increase in the waviness ratio; an increase in cellularity and lack of fibrillar arrangement led to an increase in the entropy ratio. In late fibrotic and scar tissues, inferior quality of repair with almost complete lack of organization was reflected in low to moderate correlation, low waviness, and high entropy ratios.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Stability of echo patterns accurately reflects homogeneity of tendons in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:366–375)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of microcurrent electrical tissue stimulation (METS) on equine tenocytes cultured from the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT).

Sample Population—SDFTs were collected from 20 horses at slaughter.

Procedure—Tenocytes were isolated following outgrowth from explants and grown in 48-well plates. Four methods of delivering current to the tenocytes with a METS device were tested. Once the optimal method was selected, current consisting of 0 (negative control), 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mA was applied to cells (8 wells/current intensity) once daily for 8 minutes. Cells were treated for 1, 2, or 3 days. Cell proliferation, DNA content, protein content, and apoptosis rate were determined.

Results—Application of microcurrent of moderate intensity increased cell proliferation and DNA content, with greater increases with multiple versus single application. Application of microcurrent of moderate intensity once or twice increased protein content, but application 3 times decreased protein content. Application of current a single time did not significantly alter apoptosis rate; however, application twice or 3 times resulted in significant increases in apoptosis rate, and there were significant linear (second order) correlations between current intensity and apoptosis rate when current was applied twice or 3 times.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study indicate that microcurrent affects the behavior of equine tenocytes in culture, but that effects may be negative or positive depending on current intensity and number of applications. Therefore, results are far from conclusive with respect to the suitability of using METS to promote tendon healing in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effectiveness of computerized discrimination between structure-related and non–structure-related echoes in ultrasonographic images for quantitative evaluation of tendon structural integrity in horses.

Sample Population—4 superficial digital flexor tendons (2 damaged tendons, 2 normal tendons).

Procedure—Transverse ultrasonographic images that precisely matched histologic sections were obtained in fixed steps along the long axis of each tendon. Distribution, intensity, and delineation of structurerelated echoes, quantitatively expressed as the correlation ratio and steadiness ratio , were compared with histologic findings in tissue that was normal or had necrosis, early granulation, late granulation, early fibrosis, or inferior repair.

Results—In normal tendon, the even distribution of structure-related echoes with high intensity and sharp delineation yielded high correlation ratio and steadiness ratio. In areas of necrosis, collapsed endotendon septa yielded solid but blurred structure-related echoes (high correlation ration and low steadiness ratio). In early granulation tissue, complete lack of organization caused zero values for both ratios. In late granulation tissue, reorganization and swollen endotendon septa yielded poorly delineated structurerelated echoes (high correlation ratio, low steadiness ratio). In early fibrosis, rearrangement of bundles resulted in normal correlation ration and slightly low steadiness ratio. In inferior repair, the almost complete lack of structural reorganization resulted in heterogeneous poorly delineated low-intensity echoes (low correlation ratio and steadiness ratio).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination of correlation ratio and steadiness ratio accurately reflects histopathologic findings, making computerized correlation of ultrasonographic images an efficient tool for quantitative evaluation of tendon structural integrity. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1159–1166)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe spontaneous locomotion activity of foals kept under various management conditions and assess the suitability of global positioning system (GPS) technology for recording foal activity.

Animals—59 foals.

Procedures—During the foals' first 4 months of life, 921 observation periods (15 minutes each) were collected and analyzed for locomotion activities. The GPS system was evaluated by simultaneously carrying out field observations with a handheld computer.

Results—Foals spent 0.5% of total observed time cantering, 0.2% trotting, 10.7% walking, 32.0% grazing, 34.8% standing, and 21.6% lying down. Total observed daytime workload (velocity × distance) in the first month was approximately twice that in the following months. Locomotion activity decreased with increasing age. Colts had more activity than fillies in certain periods, and foals that were stabled for some portion of the day had compensatory locomotion activity, which was probably insufficient to reach the level of foals kept continually outside. The GPS recordings and handheld-computer observations were strongly correlated for canter, trot, and walk and moderately correlated for standing and lying. Correlation for grazing was low.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that domestically managed foals, when kept 24 h/d at pasture, will exercise at a level comparable with feral foals. High workload during the first month of life might be important for conditioning the musculoskeletal system. The GPS technique accurately quantified canter, trot, and walk activities; less accurately indexed resting; and was unsuitable for grazing because of the wide array of velocities used while foraging.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between the output of an electrical treatment device and the effective field strength in the superficial digital flexor tendon of horses.

Sample Population—Cadaver horse forelimbs without visible defects (n = 8) and 1 live pony.

Procedure—Microcurrents were generated by a microcurrent electrical therapy device and applied in proximodistal, dorsopalmar, and mediolateral directions in the entire forelimbs, dissected tendons, and the pony with various output settings. Corresponding field strengths in the tendons were measured.

Results—A linear relationship was detected between current and field strength in all conditions and in all 3 directions. In dissected tendons, significant differences were detected among all 3 directions, with highest field strength in the proximodistal direction and lowest in the dorsopalmar direction. In the entire forelimbs, field strength in the proximodistal direction was significantly lower than in the mediolateral direction. Results in the pony were similar to those in the entire forelimbs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Electrode placement significantly affected field strength in the target tissue. Many surrounding structures caused considerable reduction of field strength in the target tissue. These factors should be taken into account when establishing protocols for electrical current–based therapeutic devices if these devices are proven clinically effective.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of various head and neck positions on intrathoracic pressure and arterial oxygenation during exercise in horses.

Animals—7 healthy Dutch Warmblood riding horses.

Procedures—The horses were evaluated with the head and neck in the following predefined positions: position 1, free and unrestrained; position 2, neck raised with the bridge of the nose aligned vertically; position 4, neck lowered and extremely flexed with the nose pointing toward the pectoral muscles; position 5, neck raised and extended with the bridge of the nose in front of a vertical line perpendicular to the ground surface; and position 7, neck lowered and flexed with the nose pointing towards the carpus. The standard exercise protocol consisted of trotting for 10 minutes, cantering for 4 minutes, trotting again for 5 minutes, and walking for 5 minutes. An esophageal balloon catheter was used to indirectly measure intrathoracic pressure. Arterial blood samples were obtained for measurement of Pao2, Paco2, and arterial oxygen saturation.

Results—Compared with when horses were in the unrestrained position, inspiratory intrathoracic pressure became more negative during the first trot (all positions), canter and second trot (position 4), and walk (positions 4 and 5). Compared with when horses were in position 1, intrathoracic pressure difference increased in positions 4, 2, 7, and 5; Pao2 increased in position 5; and arterial oxygen saturation increased in positions 4 and 7.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Position 4 was particularly influential on intrathoracic pressure during exercise in horses. The effects detected may have been caused by a dynamic upper airway obstruction and may be more profound in horses with upper airway disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research