Objective—To evaluate quantification of the amount
of carbamylated hemoglobin (CarbHb), using capillary
electrophoresis (CE) and a new dynamic capillary
coating system to separate hemoglobin derivatives,
and to assess the use of CarbHb amounts to evaluate
long-term urea exposure and differential diagnoses of
azotemia in dogs.
Animals—8 dogs with renal failure, 2 dogs with diabetes
mellitus, and 7 control dogs.
Procedure—Optimal analytic conditions for separation
of CarbHb and other hemoglobin derivatives in
blood samples obtained from dogs were determined,
using a commercial analysis system developed for
the detection of glycohemoglobin Hb A1c (GlycHb) in
human blood samples. Relative content of hemoglobin
derivatives in blood from 10 dogs with renal failure
or endocrine diseases were compared with values for
7 dogs without renal or endocrine diseases.
Results—Satisfactory resolution of hemoglobin derivatives
was obtained, which permitted identification
and quantitation of the amount of CarbHb as a percentage
of the total amount of hemoglobin. Normal or
increased amounts of GlycHb did not interfere with
CarbHb analysis. Dogs with chronic renal failure had
considerably higher peak amounts of CarbHb than
dogs with acute renal failure, a dog with chronic renal
failure that was treated by use of hemodialysis, or
dogs without renal disease.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Amounts of
CarbHb in blood samples obtained from dogs can be
readily quantified by use of capillary electrophoresis.
Assessment of the amount of CarbHb can be used to
facilitate evaluation of the cause of azotemia in dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1302–1306)
Objective—To compare 2 methods for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), study the effects of age and body size on GFR estimates, and provide a reference range for estimated GFR in clinically normal cats.
Procedures—In each cat, GFR was estimated via plasma clearance of iohexol and creatinine. Results of a 1-compartmental model (CL1comp) were calibrated to a trapezoidal method estimate (CLtrap) by use of a correction formula applicable to dogs or humans and standardized to body weight; for iohexol clearance, data were also standardized to extracellular fluid volume (ECFV). For all 57 cats, method comparison was performed via agreement analysis. Reference ranges for GFR derived by the different methods were established by use of data from a subset of 51 cats after exclusion of 6 cats that were azotemic, Birman, or both.
Results—In 57 cats, mean CLtrap of creatinine was 0.29 mL/min/kg (13%) higher than CLtrap of iohexol. In 51 nonazotemic cats, mean CLtrap was 2.26 mL/min/kg for iohexol (reference range, 1.02 to 3.50 mL/min/kg) and 2.55 mL/min/kg for creatinine (reference range, 1.27 to 3.83 mL/min/kg). Values of GFR/kg or GFR standardized to liters of ECFV did not decrease with increasing age. A negative linear relationship was detected between body weight and estimated GFR/kg or GFR standardized to liters of ECFV.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reference ranges for estimated GFR via plasma clearance of iohexol and creatinine should facilitate early detection of impaired renal function in cats, although body weight should be taken into account.
Objective—To compare plasma clearance of inulin and iohexol determined by use of 9 plasma samples for evaluation of glomerular filtration rate in dogs and to evaluate limited-sample approaches for evaluation of plasma clearance of these markers.
Animals—43 dogs of various breeds that weighed between 5.5 and 63 kg and that had various degrees of renal function.
Procedures—9 plasma samples were obtained from each dog at 5 minutes to 6 hours after IV bolus injection of iohexol and inulin. Clearance was calculated by use of results for all 9 samples (ie, reference method). Results for 3 limited-sample strategies for determination of plasma clearance of iohexol and inulin were compared with results for the reference method.
Results—Mean clearance of inulin and iohexol for the reference method was 2.72 and 2.48 mL/min/kg, respectively. The mean difference between clearance of these 2 markers for the reference method was 0.24 mL/min/kg. In general, use of the limited-sample strategies yielded clearance values similar to those for the reference method. More accurate estimates of clearance were obtained for iohexol than for inulin by use of the limited-sample methods.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of iohexol and inulin yielded similar but not identical results for plasma clearance. Accuracy for limited-sample methods would be acceptable for many clinical and research situations. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1100–1107)
Objective—To determine vasopressin (VP) secretory
capacity during osmotic stimulation and the response
to desmopressin treatment in dogs with pyometra
and control dogs.
Animals—6 dogs with pyometra before and after
ovariohysterectomy and 6 control dogs.
Procedure—Urine osmolality (Uosm) was measured
during 12 hours. Values measured on the first day
defined the basal Uosm pattern. On the second day,
dogs were given desmopressin to induce a desmopressin-stimulated Uosm pattern. On day 3, the VP
response to osmotic stimulation was examined.
Results—Median Uosm on day 1 was 340 mOsm/kg
(range, 104 to 1,273 mOsm/kg) and 807 mOsm/kg
(range, 362 to 1,688 mOsm/kg) in dogs with pyometra
before and after surgery, respectively, and 1,511
mOsm/kg (range, 830 to 1,674 mOsm/kg) in control
dogs. Median Uosm during desmopressin treatment
was 431 mOsm/kg (range, 168 to 1,491 mOsm/kg)
and 1,051 mOsm/kg (range, 489 to 1,051 mOsm/kg) in
dogs with pyometra before and after surgery, respectively,
and 1,563 mOsm/kg (range, 1,390 to 2,351) in
control dogs. In dogs with pyometra, threshold for VP
secretion was lower before surgery (median, 340
mOsm/kg; range, 331 to 366 mOsm/kg) than after
surgery (median, 358 mOsm/kg; range, 343 to 439
mOsm/kg) or in control dogs (median, 347 mOsm/kg;
range, 334 to 360 mOsm/kg). Highest maximum plasma
VP values were found in dogs with pyometra.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with
pyometra had increased urine concentration in
response to desmopressin but not to the degree of
control dogs, whereas VP secretory ability was not
reduced. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:404–408)
Objective—To develop a formula for correcting slope-intercept plasma iohexol clearance in cats and to compare clearance of total iohexol (TIox), endo-iohexol (EnIox), and exo-iohexol (ExIox).
Animals—20 client-owned, healthy adult and geriatric cats.
Procedures—Plasma clearance of TIox was determined via multisample and slope-intercept methods. A multisample method was used to determine clearance for EnIox and ExIox. A second-order polynomial correction factor was derived by performing regression analysis of the multisample data with the slope-intercept data and forcing the regression line though the origin. Clearance corrected by use of the derived formula was compared with clearance corrected by use of Brochner-Mortensen human and Heiene canine formulae. Statistical testing was applied, and Bland-Altman plots were created to assess the degree of agreement between TIox, EnIox, and ExIox clearance.
Results—Mean ± SD iohexol clearance estimated via multisample and corrected slope-intercept methods was 2.16 ± 0.35 mL/min/kg and 2.14 ± 0.34 mL/min/kg, respectively. The derived feline correction formula was Clcorrected = (1.036 × Cluncorrected) – (0.062 × Cluncorrected2), in which Cl represents clearance. Results obtained by use of the 2 methods were in excellent agreement. Clearance corrected by use of the Heiene formula had a linear relationship with clearance corrected by use of the feline formula; however, the relationship of the feline formula with the Brochner-Mortensen formula was nonlinear. Agreement between TIox, EnIox, and ExIox clearance was excellent.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The derived feline correction formula applied to slope-intercept plasma iohexol clearance accurately predicted multisample clearance in cats. Use of this technique offers an important advantage by reducing stress to cats associated with repeated blood sample collection and decreasing the costs of analysis.
Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics and clearances of creatinine and iohexol as estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs with various degrees of renal function.
Animals—50 Great Anglo-Francais Tricolor Hounds with various degrees of renal function.
Procedures—Boluses of iohexol (40 mg/kg) and creatinine (647 mg/kg) were injected IV. Blood samples were collected before administration and 5 and 10 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after administration. Plasma creatinine and iohexol concentrations were assayed via an enzymatic method and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. A noncompartmental approach was used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Pharmacokinetic variables were compared via a Bland-Altman plot and an ANOVA.
Results—Compared with results for creatinine, iohexol had a significantly higher mean ± SD plasma clearance (3.4 ± 0.8 mL/min/kg vs 3.0 ± 0.7 mL/min/kg) and a significantly lower mean volume of distribution at steady state (250 ± 37 mL/kg vs 539 ± 73 mL/kg), mean residence time (80 ± 31 minutes vs 195 ± 73 minutes), and mean elimination half-life (74 ± 20 minutes vs 173 ± 53 minutes). Despite discrepancies between clearances, especially for high values, the difference was < 0.6 mL/min/kg for 34 (68%) dogs. Three dogs with a low GFR (< 2 mL/min/kg) were classified similarly by both methods.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plasma iohexol and creatinine clearances can be used interchangeably for screening patients suspected of having chronic kidney disease (ie, low GFR), but large differences may exist for dogs with a GFR within or above the reference range.