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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer (ABA; gold standard).

SAMPLE

152 canine and 111 feline blood samples.

PROCEDURES

For each sample, the glucose concentration in serum, plasma, and blood was measured by a POCG and compared with the ABA-measured glucose concentration by means of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient. Results were summarized by species for all samples and subsets of samples with hyperglycemia (ABA-measured glucose concentration > 112 mg/dL for dogs and > 168 mg/dL for cats) and pronounced hyperglycemia (ABA-measured glucose concentration > 250 mg/dL for both species). The effect of PCV on correlations between POCG and ABA measurements was also assessed.

RESULTS

Hyperglycemia and pronounced hyperglycemia were identified in 69 and 36 canine samples and 44 and 29 feline samples, respectively. The POCG-measured glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and blood were strongly and positively correlated with the gold standard concentration. The PCV was positively associated with the correlation between the POCG-measured blood glucose concentration and the gold standard concentration but was not associated with the correlations between the POCG-measured glucose concentrations in serum and plasma and the gold standard concentration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that POCG-measured glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and blood were strongly correlated with the ABA-measured serum glucose concentration, even in hyperglycemic samples. Given the time and labor required to harvest serum or plasma from blood samples, we concluded that blood was the preferred sample type for use with this POCG.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a difference existed in Doppler ultrasonographic measurements of systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) in sitting versus laterally recumbent dogs and to determine the degree of variability in measurements made in each position.

Design—Diagnostic test evaluation.

Animals—51 healthy or sick adult dogs, without recent sedation or anesthesia and with an SAP ≤ 300 mm Hg.

Procedures—In a crossover design, SAP was measured via Doppler ultrasonography when dogs were sitting (on hind limbs with nonmeasured forelimb bearing weight) and laterally recumbent, with the cuff position at the level of the right atrium for both positions. Seven measurements were obtained per position for each dog.

Results—Mean ± SD SAP was significantly higher in the sitting (172.1 ± 33.3 mm Hg) versus recumbent (147.0 ± 24.6 mm Hg) position, and this difference was evident for 44 of 51 (86%) dogs. The mean difference in measured SAP between the 2 positions was 25.1 ± 28.5 mm Hg. Blood pressure measurements had a significantly higher repeatability in the recumbent position than in the sitting position.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Blood pressure measurements in dogs were significantly affected by body position, and they were higher for most dogs when sitting rather than laterally recumbent. Blood pressure measurements in the laterally recumbent body position were less variable than in the sitting position.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of twice-daily glargine insulin administration in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Design—Open-label, prospective clinical trial.

Animals—10 dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.

Procedures—Dogs with poorly regulated or newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were enrolled if their owners agreed to return them to the hospital at 1- to 3-week intervals for 4 follow-up visits. During each follow-up visit, blood glucose concentrations were measured every 2 hours for at least 10 hours after feeding a diet high in insoluble fiber and after administration of glargine insulin (time 0). The initial glargine insulin dosage was 0.5 U/kg (0.23 U/lb) SC twice daily.

Results—All dogs had well-regulated diabetes mellitus at a mean ± SD of 38 ± 14 days (median, 43 days; range, 7 to 55 days) following study enrollment. At the time diabetes mellitus was well regulated, mean glargine insulin dosage was 0.5 ± 0.15 U/kg (0.23 ± 0.068 U/lb; median, 0.5 U/kg; range, 0.32 to 0.67 U/kg [0.15 to 0.30 U/lb]) twice daily, and 3 dogs were receiving a dosage < 0.4 U/kg (0.18 U/lb). In dogs with well-regulated diabetes mellitus, the mean minimum blood glucose concentration (163 ± 89 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 100 to 227 mg/dL) was detected 2 hours after administration of glargine insulin and the mean maximum blood glucose concentration (230 ± 95 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 64 to 323 mg/dL) was detected 12 hours after administration of glargine insulin. There was no significant difference between mean minimum and mean maximum blood glucose concentrations nor were there significant differences between blood glucose concentrations measured at other time points. Blood glucose concentration < 80 mg/dL was measured at least once in 7 of 10 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that, in diabetic dogs fed a diet high in insoluble fiber, glargine insulin is a peakless insulin that does not induce a distinct blood glucose concentration nadir. For glargine insulin, 0.3 U/kg (0.136 U/lb) SC twice daily is recommended as an initial dosage.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess effects of basal-bolus insulin treatment (BBIT) with lispro and neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulins, compared with NPH insulin alone, on serum fructosamine concentration (SFC) and postprandial blood glucose concentration (BGC) in dogs with clinically well-controlled diabetes mellitus and postprandial hyperglycemia fed a high insoluble fiber–content diet.

ANIMALS

6 client-owned dogs with diabetes mellitus.

PROCEDURES

Blood samples were collected for BGC and SFC measurement in hospitalized dogs just before feeding and routine SC NPH insulin administration (time 0); samples were collected for BGC measurement every 30 minutes for 2 hours, then every 2 hours for up to 10 additional hours. Postprandial hyperglycemia was identified when BGC 30 minutes after insulin administration exceeded BGC at time 0 or the 1-hour time point. For BBIT, owners were instructed to continue NPH insulin administration at the usual dosage at home (q 12 h, with feeding) and to administer lispro insulin (0.1 U/Kg, SC) separately at the time of NPH injections. Two weeks later, SFC and BGC measurements were repeated; results at the start and end of the study were compared statistically.

RESULTS

Median SFC was significantly higher at the start (400 μmol/L) than at the end (390 μmol/L) of the study. Median 1-hour (313 mg/dL) and 1.5-hour (239 mg/dL) BGC measurements at the start of the study were significantly higher than those at the end of the study (117 and 94 mg/dL, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In this sample of dogs with well-controlled diabetes mellitus, addition of lispro insulin to an existing treatment regimen of NPH insulin and dietary management significantly decreased postprandial BGCs. Further study of BBIT for dogs with diabetes mellitus is warranted.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate glycemic response to insulin treatment in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—221 dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Type and dosage of insulin used, minimum and maximum blood glucose concentrations, time of blood glucose concentration nadir, and optimal duration of action of insulin were determined on the basis of data obtained prior to initial examination at the teaching hospital (127 dogs), at the time of initial examination (212 dogs), at the time a second follow- up blood glucose curve was performed (59 dogs), and at the time of clinical control of diabetes mellitus (83 dogs).

Results—Prior to examination, 69 of 127 dogs (54%) received 1 SC insulin injection daily. Thirty-one dogs (24%) received a high dose of insulin (ie, > 1.5 U/kg [0.7 U/lb] of body weight); 27 of these dogs (87%) received 1 injection/d. Eleven of 16 dogs (69%) that were hypoglycemic (blood glucose concentration < 80 mg/dl) also received 1 injection/d. However, optimal duration of action of insulin was > 12 hours in only 5 of 83 dogs (6%) evaluated at the time diabetes mellitus was clinically controlled. At that time, only 1 dog (1%) received a high dose of insulin, and the dog received 2 injections/d. Moreover, 8 of 10 dogs (80%) with hypoglycemia received 1 injection/d.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs with diabetes mellitus are clinically regulated with 2 daily insulin injections. Administration of a high dose of insulin or development of hypoglycemia may be more common in diabetic dogs that receive insulin once daily, compared with dogs that receive insulin twice daily. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:217–221)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize skin lesions and causative infections in diabetic dogs and evaluate other potential causes of dermatologic disorders, including concurrent endocrinopathies, allergic skin disease, and long-term corticosteroid administration.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—45 dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM) that were examined by dermatologists.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment; allergic conditions prior to development of DM; prior corticosteroid administration; and results of dermatologic examinations, ear and skin cytologic examinations, skin scrapings for parasites, bacteriologic and fungal culturing of ear and skin specimens, histologic examinations, and endocrine testing.

Results—Bacterial skin infection was the most common dermatologic disorder (n = 38 [84%]), followed by otitis (26 [58%]) and Malassezia-induced dermatitis (19 [42%]). Twenty-two (49%) dogs had pruritic skin disease consistent with allergic dermatitis, which preceded diagnosis of DM. Prior corticosteroid administration was reported in 21 (47%) dogs. Concurrent hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed in 13 (29%) dogs, and concurrent hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 5 (11%) dogs. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed in 1 additional dog. Only 10 (22%) dogs did not have a documented concurrent endocrinopathy or allergic disease that could have caused the dermatitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bacterial and yeast-induced dermatitis and otitis develop in dogs with DM. Many diabetic dogs with dermatologic problems have a preexisting allergic condition, history of prior corticosteroid administration, or concurrent endocrinopathy that may be a more likely cause of dermatologic problems than DM alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001:219: 203–208)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Samples—96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats.

Procedures—Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots.

Results—For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:1327–1333)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine which dog breeds are at low and high risk for developing diabetes mellitus (DM).

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—Hospital population of 221 dogs with DM and 42,882 dogs without DM during 5.5 years.

Procedure—165 breeds (including a mixed-breed category) were represented in the hospital population. Breed-specific expected numbers of dogs with DM were calculated by multiplying the proportion of all dogs admitted to the hospital that were determined to have DM during the study period by the breed-specific totals during the study period. Breeds or breed groups evaluated in the analysis (n = 20) were restricted to those that had a combined observed and expected count > 5 to document breeds at low and high risk for developing DM. Proportionate changes in the risk of developing DM by breed were calculated and presented using exact odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P values. Mixed-breed dogs were chosen as the reference breed.

Results—Samoyeds, Miniature Schnauzers, Miniature Poodles, Pugs, and Toy Poodles were at high risk for developing DM. Dog breeds found to be at low risk for developing DM were German Shepherd Dog, Golden Retriever, and American Pit Bull Terrier.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The finding that certain dog breeds are at low or high risk for developing DM suggests that some genetic defects may predispose dogs to development of DM, whereas other genetic factors may protect dogs from development of DM. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 1414–1417)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare effectiveness of maropitant and ondansetron in preventing preoperative vomiting and nausea in healthy dogs premedicated with a combination of hydromorphone, acepromazine, and glycopyrrolate.

ANIMALS

88 dogs owned by rescue organizations.

PROCEDURES

Dogs received maropitant (n = 29) or ondansetron (28) PO 2 hours prior to premedication or did not receive an antiemetic (31; control). Dogs were evaluated for vomiting, nausea, and severity of nausea (scored for 6 signs) for 15 minutes following premedication with hydromorphone, acepromazine, and glycopyrrolate.

RESULTS

A significantly lower percentage of dogs vomited after receiving maropitant (3/29 [10%]), compared with control dogs (19/31 [62%]) and dogs that received ondansetron (15/28 [54%]). A significantly lower percentage of dogs appeared nauseated after receiving maropitant (3/29 [10%]), compared with control dogs (27/31 [87%]) and dogs that received ondansetron (14/28 [50%]), and a significantly lower percentage of dogs appeared nauseated after receiving ondansetron, compared with control dogs. Nausea severity scores for hypersalivation, lip licking, hard swallowing, and hunched posture were significantly lower for dogs that received maropitant than for control dogs, and scores for hypersalivation, lip licking, and hard swallowing were significantly lower for dogs that received ondansetron than for control dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Oral administration of maropitant 2 hours prior to premedication with hydromorphone reduced the incidence of vomiting and the incidence and severity of nausea in healthy dogs. Oral administration of ondansetron reduced the incidence and severity of nausea but not the incidence of vomiting.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize concurrent disorders in dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—221 dogs with DM.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and clinical signs, physical examination findings, and results of clinicopathologic testing, urinalysis, aerobic bacterial culture of urine samples, coagulation testing, endocrine testing, histologic evaluation, diagnostic imaging, and necropsy were recorded.

Results—For most dogs, CBC results were normal. Common serum biochemical abnormalities included hypochloremia (127 dogs, 60%) and high alanine aminotransferase (163, 78%), aspartate aminotransferase (78, 71%), and alkaline phosphatase (188, 90%) activities. Venous pH and serum ionized calcium concentration were measured in 121 and 87 dogs, respectively, and were low in 56 (46%) and 41 (47%) dogs. Lipemia was observed in 92 (42%) dogs. Urine samples from 159 (72%) dogs were submitted for aerobic bacterial culture, and 34 (21%) yielded bacterial growth. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated organism. Thirty-six (16%) dogs had dermatitis or otitis. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed in 51 (23%) dogs on the basis of clinical signs and results of a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (41 dogs), an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test (5), both tests (4), or histologic evaluation of necropsy specimens (1). Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 28 (13%) dogs. Eleven (5%) dogs had tumors for which a histologic diagnosis was obtained. Eight (4%) dogs were hypothyroid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dogs with diabetes mellitus may have many concurrent disorders. The most commonly identified concurrent disorders included hyperadrenocorticism, urinary tract infection, dermatitis, otitis, acute pancreatitis, neoplasia, and hypothyroidism. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1166–1173)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association