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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether hyperglycemia is associated with head trauma in dogs and cats and whether the degree of hyperglycemia corresponds to severity of neurologic injury or outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—52 dogs and 70 cats with head trauma and 122 age- and species-matched control dogs and cats.

Procedure—Severity of head trauma was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Blood glucose concentrations recorded within 1 hour after admission were compared between case and control animals and among groups when case animals were grouped on the basis of severity of head trauma or outcome.

Results—Blood glucose concentration was significantly associated with severity of head trauma in dogs and cats and was significantly higher in dogs and cats with head trauma than in the control animals. However, blood glucose concentration was not associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dogs and cats with head trauma may have hyperglycemia and that degree of hyperglycemia was associated with severity of head trauma. However, degree of hyperglycemia was not associated with outcome for dogs and cats with head trauma. Because hyperglycemia can potentiate neurologic injury, iatrogenic hyperglycemia should be avoided in patients with head trauma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1124–1129)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the correlation between plasma lactate concentration and base excess at the time of hospital admission and evaluate each variable as a predictor of gastric necrosis or outcome in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—78 dogs.

Procedures—For each dog, various data, including plasma lactate concentration and base excess at the time of hospital admission, surgical or necropsy findings, and outcome, were collected from medical records.

Results—Gastric necrosis was identified in 12 dogs at the time of surgery and in 4 dogs at necropsy. Sixty-five (83%) dogs survived to hospital discharge, whereas 13 (17%) dogs died or were euthanized. Of the 65 survivors and 8 nonsurvivors that underwent surgery, gastric necrosis was detected in 8 and 4 dogs, respectively. Via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an initial plasma lactate concentration cutoff of 7.4 mmol/L was 82% accurate for predicting gastric necrosis (sensitivity, 50%; specificity, 88%) and 88% accurate for predicting outcome (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 89%). Among all dogs, the correlation between initial plasma lactate concentration and base excess was significant, although base excess was a poor discriminator for predicting gastric necrosis or outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.571 and 0.565, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with GDV, plasma lactate concentration at the time of hospital admission was a good predictor of gastric necrosis and outcome. However, despite the correlation between initial base excess and plasma lactate concentration, base excess should not be used for prediction of gastric necrosis or outcome in those patients.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association