Objective—To determine whether hyperglycemia is
associated with head trauma in dogs and cats and
whether the degree of hyperglycemia corresponds to
severity of neurologic injury or outcome.
Animals—52 dogs and 70 cats with head trauma and
122 age- and species-matched control dogs and cats.
Procedure—Severity of head trauma was classified
as mild, moderate, or severe. Blood glucose concentrations
recorded within 1 hour after admission were
compared between case and control animals and
among groups when case animals were grouped on
the basis of severity of head trauma or outcome.
Results—Blood glucose concentration was significantly
associated with severity of head trauma in
dogs and cats and was significantly higher in dogs
and cats with head trauma than in the control animals.
However, blood glucose concentration was not
associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that dogs and cats with head trauma may have
hyperglycemia and that degree of hyperglycemia was
associated with severity of head trauma. However,
degree of hyperglycemia was not associated with
outcome for dogs and cats with head trauma.
Because hyperglycemia can potentiate neurologic
injury, iatrogenic hyperglycemia should be avoided in
patients with head trauma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine the correlation between plasma lactate concentration and base excess at the time of hospital admission and evaluate each variable as a predictor of gastric necrosis or outcome in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—For each dog, various data, including plasma lactate concentration and base excess at the time of hospital admission, surgical or necropsy findings, and outcome, were collected from medical records.
Results—Gastric necrosis was identified in 12 dogs at the time of surgery and in 4 dogs at necropsy. Sixty-five (83%) dogs survived to hospital discharge, whereas 13 (17%) dogs died or were euthanized. Of the 65 survivors and 8 nonsurvivors that underwent surgery, gastric necrosis was detected in 8 and 4 dogs, respectively. Via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an initial plasma lactate concentration cutoff of 7.4 mmol/L was 82% accurate for predicting gastric necrosis (sensitivity, 50%; specificity, 88%) and 88% accurate for predicting outcome (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 89%). Among all dogs, the correlation between initial plasma lactate concentration and base excess was significant, although base excess was a poor discriminator for predicting gastric necrosis or outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.571 and 0.565, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with GDV, plasma lactate concentration at the time of hospital admission was a good predictor of gastric necrosis and outcome. However, despite the correlation between initial base excess and plasma lactate concentration, base excess should not be used for prediction of gastric necrosis or outcome in those patients.