Objective—To compare clinical, microbiologic, and clinicopathologic findings among horses infected with Clostridium difficile that had toxin A in their feces, horses with evidence of C difficile infection that were negative for toxin A in their feces, and horses with diarrhea that were negative for C difficile infection.
Animals—292 horses and foals with diarrhea.
Procedures—Feces were submitted for microbial culture and tested for the C difficile antigen glutamate dehydrogenase and for toxin A with a commercial ELISA.
Results—Horses with toxin A in their feces had higher band neutrophil count, rectal temperature, hospitalization time prior to the onset of diarrhea, and total hospitalization time than did horses without evidence of C difficile infection, and 32 of the 33 (97%) horses with toxin A in their feces had received antimicrobials prior to the onset of diarrhea. Horses with toxin A in their feces had a significantly higher mortality rate than did horses negative for toxin A in their feces. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for detection of C difficile antigen were 93% and 88%, when assay results were compared with results of microbial culture following direct plating, and 66% and 93%, when assay results were compared with results of microbial culture following broth enrichment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided some evidence that horses positive for toxin A had more severe clinical disease than did horses with evidence of C difficile infection that were negative for toxin A and horses with diarrhea without evidence of C difficile infection.
Objective—To assess data regarding clinical features,
clinicopathologic and blood gas variables, and outcome
from horse and mule foals with confirmed
neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—17 horse and 1 mule foals.
Procedure—Medical records of foals (< 14 days old)
with NI were reviewed. Information collected included
signalment; clinical examination findings; results
of hematologic, serum and plasma biochemical, and
venous blood gas analyses and urinalysis; treatments;
Results—Data from 17 horse foals and 1 mule foal
with NI (mean age, 71 hours) were evaluated. Many
foals had high serum indirect and direct bilirubin concentrations
and sorbitol dehydrogenase activity.
Whole blood immunoglobulin concentrations were
< 400 mg/dL in 4 of 15 foals. Fresh whole blood transfusions
were administered to 10 of 18 foals. Among
the blood factors implicated in 11 foals, one (Dg) had
not previously been associated with NI. Of 10 foals
that received blood transfusions, 7 had significant
improvements in Hct and hemoglobin concentration
and 2 had significant improvements in central venous
oxygen tension. Fifteen foals survived to discharge.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest
that blood factor Dg may be associated with NI in
foals. Liver disease may be concurrent with NI in
foals, and NI can develop in foals with inadequate passive
transfer of colostral antibodies. Whole blood
transfusions were successful at increasing oxygencarrying
capacity and improving peripheral tissue oxygenation
in NI-affected foals. With appropriate treatment,
the prognosis for foals with NI is good. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1276–1283)
Objective—To evaluate selected hemodynamic, blood gas, and biochemical responses to mild to moderate acute blood loss in standing, awake horses.
Animals—7 healthy mares.
Procedures—Each horse was restrained in standing stocks, and its head was maintained in a neutral position; sedatives and tranquilizers were not administered. During a 1-hour period, blood was collected into collection bags by use of a suction pump. The rate of blood collection was approximately 16 mL/kg/h (7.3 mL/lb/h). Thirty minutes after blood collection, the blood was readministered at the same rate. Central venous pressure (CVP), central venous blood gas, blood lactate concentration, and heart rate were measured at baseline (after placement of catheters), after removal of blood, and after readministration of blood.
Results—In response to blood loss, CVP decreased and blood lactate concentration increased significantly, compared with baseline values; heart rate and results of central venous blood gas analysis did not change significantly. After readministration of blood, CVP returned to baseline value and blood lactate concentration approached baseline value.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Changes in CVP and blood lactate concentration appear to be early indicators of hypovolemia in horses, which may represent acute blood loss in trauma patients; these variables should be monitored to assess the potential need for blood transfusions. These variables can be used to monitor responses of horses to blood transfusions when whole blood is administered as the replacement fluid.
Objective—To elucidate the ultrastructural details of
calcium oxalate-containing urinary calculi from dogs.
Sample Population—38 specimens selected from a
collection of 8,297 oxalate-containing urinary calculi
from dogs: 22 specimens composed of calcium
oxalate (calcium oxalate monohydrate [COM], calcium
oxalate dihydrate [COD], or COM and COD) and
16 specimens composed of calcium oxalate with
amorphous calcium phosphate.
Procedure—Analyses of specimens included use of
plain, reflected, and polarized light microscopy, X-ray
diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
with backscattered electron (BSE) imagery, and electron
Results—Four texture types were observed in calcium
oxalate calculi; 4 texture types of calcium oxalatecalcium
phosphate-mixed calculi were recognized.
Texture types were delineated through differences in
calcium oxalate crystal sizes, which were affected by
urine supersaturation and abundance of crystal nucleation
sites. Segregation of calcium oxalate from calcium
phosphate indicated they do not precipitate under
the same conditions. Deposition of calcium phosphate
between calcium oxalate crystals decreased
the volume of pore spaces within calculi. Porosity
was observed along boundaries between COM and
COD. Minute pores increased the surface area of calculi
exposed to urine, and this increase in liquid-solid
interface promotes interaction of crystals with the
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Calcium
oxalate urolithiasis is of major concern, because it is
often a recurrent disease among dogs, principally
treated by surgical removal of calculi, with few effective
dissolution strategies. Understanding the ultrastructure
and mineralogic content of calcium oxalate
and its association with amorphous calcium phosphate
is a step toward the solution of this increasingly
important medical problem. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To apply the principle of sodium dilution to calculate the changes in the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume (ECFV) and intracellular fluid volume (ICFV) that occur during dehydration and rehydration in horses.
Animals—8 healthy horses of various breeds.
Procedures—Horses were dehydrated over 4 hours by withholding water and administering furosemide. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IV during the next 2 hours (20 mL/kg/h; total 40 mL/kg). Horses were monitored for an additional hour following IV fluid administration. Initial ECFV was determined by use of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serum sodium concentration was used to calculate total ECF sodium content. Sodium and fluid volume losses were monitored and calculated throughout the study and used to estimate changes in ECFV and ICFV during fluid balance alterations.
Results—Changes during dehydration and rehydration primarily occurred in the ECFV. The sodium dilution principle estimated an overexpansion of the ECFV beyond the volume of fluid administered, indicating a small contraction of the ICFV in response to fluid administration. Serum and urinary electrolyte changes were recorded and were consistent with those of previous reports.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The sodium dilution principle provided a simple method that can be used to estimate the changes in ECFV and ICFV that occur during fluid administration. Results suggested an overexpansion of the ECFV in response to IV saline solution administration. The sodium dilution principle requires further validation in healthy and clinically ill horses, which could provide clinical applications similar to those in other species.