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Summary

Experiments were conducted to determine comparative populations of Salmonella typhimurium in the most commonly infected body organs of long-term carrier swine. Naturally farrowed Salmonella-free pigs (n = 58) were orally exposed to S typhimurium when they were 47 days old. Necropsy of 3 to 5 randomly selected pigs was conducted at 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 days and at 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 weeks after exposure. Mean populations (log10/g) of S typhimurium in palatine tonsils, ileum, cecum (wall and contents), ascending colon (wall and contents), and mandibular and ileocolic lymph nodes were estimated at each necropsy, using a most-probable-number method of bacteriologic examination. Populations of organisms in cecum and colon were similar to each other throughout the duration of the study. Mean populations (log10/g) associated with cecal and colonic walls decreased from 6.1 and 6.6, respectively, during the first postexposure (pe) week to ≤ 1.67 from pe weeks 4 to 28. Populations (log10/g) associated with cecal and colonic contents decreased from 5.6 and 5.5, respectively, at pe day 3 to 2.5 and 2.7, respectively, at pe week 4, and remained ≤ 2.8 until week 28. Populations (log10/g) associated with intestinal walls and contents were closely correlated during the study. Population (log10/g) in the ileum was ≥ 5.3 from pe days 3 to 17, then varied between 5.4 and -0.4 up to pe week 28. Population (log10/g) of S typhimurium in the tonsils varied from 6.4 to 5.5 up to pe week 5, then decreased to a range of 5.3 to 4.0 until pe week 24, and further decreased to 1.1 at pe week 28. Population (log10/g) in mandibular lymph nodes decreased from 3.5 at pe day 3 to 0.8 at week 8, then ≤ 1.0 up to week 28. In ileocolic lymph nodes, population decreased from 4.4 during the first pe week to ‒0.2 at 8 weeks, then ≤ 1.5 up to week 28. Fecal samples obtained weekly or biweekly throughout the study were 50 to 100% culture-positive (av, 85.4%). Results indicate that the long-term carrier state of S typhimurium in most infected body organs of swine exists mainly at a low, but fairly stable population.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Changes in platelet indices (platelet count and platelet size) and pcv associated with thyroid disease were studied in 7 dogs with hypothyroidism and 21 cats with hyperthyroidism that were admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital. Compared with control (euthyroid) dogs, dogs with hypothyroidism had higher platelet count (P = 0.003), smaller platelet size (P = 0.01), and lower pcv (P = 0.02). Comparison of the group of hyperthyroid cats with a group of similarly aged, clinically normal cats with normal thyroxine values indicated that the group of hyperthyroid cats had significantly (P = 0.03) higher mean platelet size than did control cats, but differences were not found in mean platelet count or pcv. Results of this investigation indicate that the changes in platelet size reported in human beings with thyroid endocrinopathies also are found in animals so-affected. Although the pathogenesis of platelet abnormalities in animals with thyroid derangement is unclear and likely is multifactorial, the observed relation between platelet and erythrocyte production in this group of dogs is consistent with reports of an inverse relation between thrombocytopoiesis and erythropoiesis in iatrogenically hyperthyroid mice and in mice exposed to hypoxia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

An experiment was conducted to determine whether a persistent Salmonella newport infection could be established in swine, to determine duration of shedding and distribution of the organism in internal organs, and to determine whether changes occurred in antimicrobial susceptibility or plasmid profile of the organism during the course of long-term infection. Naturally farrowed Salmonella-free pigs (n = 22) were orally exposed to a multiply antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic strain of S newport when they were 7 weeks old. Tonsillar and rectal swab specimens were examined bacteriologically for S newport during the first week after exposure, then weekly for 7 weeks. Fecal samples were likewise examined weekly or every 2 weeks for 28 weeks after exposure. Necropsies of 2 or 3 randomly selected pigs were conducted at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 weeks after exposure. A total of 45 specimens/pig representing the following internal organs or tissues were examined bacteriologically for S newport: liver, spleen, kidney, gallbladder, heart, heart blood, lung, stomach, and tonsils; segments of the intestinal tract with corresponding lymph nodes; and lymph nodes from lymphocenters of the head and neck, thoracic cavity, thoracic limbs, abdominal viscera, and abdominal wall. Exposure to S newport induced a mild and transient clinical response. The organism was recovered from 97% of tonsillar swab specimens and 89% of rectal swab specimens collected during 7 weeks after exposure and from 98% of fecal samples collected during 28 weeks after exposure. At necropsy, S newport was recovered most frequently from tonsils (86.4%), followed by segments of the intestinal tract from ileum to rectum (81.8% recovery from cecal contents), and from mandibular (68.2%), jejunal (50%), and ileocolic (45.5%) lymph nodes. Sporadic recoveries of the organism were made from other lymph nodes and from gallbladder, stomach, kidney, spleen, liver, and heart, varying from 2 to 20 weeks after exposure. The cranial portion of jejunum, medial iliac lymph nodes, dorsal superficial cervical lymph node, and heart blood of all pigs were culture-negative. Of 26 representative isolates of S newport recovered from body organs or feces during 28 weeks after exposure, 4 (15.4%) underwent changes in antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Changes in plasmid profile of the organism were not detected during longterm infection of swine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether exposure to UV germicidal irradiation (UVGI) reduces concentrations of viable aerosolized microorganisms (attenuated strains of common veterinary pathogens) in a simulated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system.

SAMPLE

42 air samples seeded with bacteriophage MS2 or attenuated strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus-1, canine parvovirus, or canine distemper virus (6/microorganism) or with no microorganisms added (6).

PROCEDURES

A simulated HVAC unit was built that included a nebulizer to aerosolize microorganisms suspended in phosphate-buffered water, a fan to produce airflow, 2 UVGI bulb systems, and an impinger for air sampling. Ten-minute trials (3 with UVGI, 3 without UVGI, and 1 negative control) were conducted for each microorganism. Impingers collected microorganisms into phosphate-buffered water for subsequent quantification with culture-based assays. Results for samples yielding no target microorganisms were recorded as the assay's lower limit of detection. Statistical analysis was not performed.

RESULTS

The UVGI treatment resulted in subjectively lower concentrations of viable MS2, B bronchiseptica, and canine distemper virus (arithmetic mean ± SD log10 microorganism reduction, 2.57 ± 0.47, ≥ 3.45 ± 0.24, and ≥ 1.50 ± 0.25, respectively) collected from air. Feline herpesvirus-1 was detected in only 1 sample without and no samples with UVGI treatment. Feline calicivirus and canine parvovirus were not detectable in any collected samples.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results for some surrogates of veterinary pathogens suggested a potential benefit to supplementing manual disinfection practices with UVGI-based air cleaning systems in animal care environments. Further research is needed to investigate the utility of UVGI in operating HVAC systems.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In an abattoir-based case-control study, histologic, and macroscopic examination of porcine intestines at slaughter and 2 molecular assays were compared for use as diagnostic tests of proliferative enteritis (pe). Fecal samples and intestinal specimens were collected from pigs with grossly thick ileum and from clinically normal pigs at slaughter. Tissue specimens were fixed in neutral buffered 10% formalin, and sectioned. Sections stained with H&E were examined for proliferative lesions by a pathologist unaware of the group to which the pig had been assigned on the basis of results of gross examination. Adjacent tissue sections, stained with Warthin-Starry (silver) stain, were examined for presence of the intracellular bacterium of pe, ileal symbiont (is)-intracellularis, in the enterocytes of the intestinal crypts by the senior author, who was unaware either of the group to which the pig had been assigned or diagnosis by the pathologist. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and assayed by dot-blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for presence of is-intracellularis dna, without knowledge of results of the other examinations. The pcr assay for is-intracellularis was a specific and sensitive diagnostic test for pe, and dot-blot hybridization was sensitive, but was less specific. Macroscopic examination of intestines at slaughter was a sensitive, but not specific, test.

Association between is-intracellularis and proliferative lesions was statistically examined in the same study. There was a highly significant (P = 0.0078) association between presence of naturally acquired proliferative lesions and intracellular infection induced by is-intracellularis. The odds ratio of ≥ 14 and estimated attributable fraction of ≥ 92% indicate that is-intracellularis may be a necessary cause of pe.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research