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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine causes for discharge of military working dogs (MWDs) from service.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—268 MWDs.

Procedures—Records of all MWDs approved for discharge from December 2000 through November 2004 were evaluated for cause of discharge.

Results—23 dogs had been obtained through the Department of Defense breeding program but had failed to meet prepurchase or certification standards. The remaining 245 (120 German Shepherd Dogs, 100 Belgian Malinois, and 25 dogs of other breeds) had been purchased as adults or obtained through the breeding program and had passed prepurchase and certification standards. Eighty-five of the 245 (34.7%) adult dogs were 1 to < 5 years old at discharge, and 160 (65.3%) were ≥ 5 years old at discharge. The proportion of adult dogs < 5 years old at discharge that were German Shepherd Dogs (69.4%) was significantly greater than the proportion of adult dogs ≥ 5 years old at discharge that were German Shepherd Dogs (38.1%). Within the subgroup of dogs ≥ 5 years old at discharge, median age at discharge for the German Shepherd Dogs (8.59 years) was significantly less than median age at discharge for the Belgian Malinois (10.61 years). For adult dogs < 5 years old at discharge, the most common cause for discharge was behavioral problems (82.3%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that longevity of service for MWDs may be influenced by breed differences and that selection criteria should be evaluated to reduce behavior-related discharge from service.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine the prevalence of various clinical signs in dogs with brain tumors.


Retrospective study.


97 dogs with brain tumors.


Medical records were reviewed for signalment, tumor type and location, and clinical signs.


33 breeds were represented; Golden Retrievers were most commonly affected. Most dogs were older (median age, 9 years); 95% of dogs were ≥ 5 years old. Seventy-six percent of dogs had tumors in the supratentorial region. Seizures were the most common clinical sign at initial examination, with lower prevalence for circling, ataxia, and head tilt. Meningioma was the most common tumor.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Brain tumors develop most often in dogs ≥ 5 years old and are uncommon in dogs < 5 years old. Seizures are a common clinical sign, and a brain tumor should be considered in dogs that have their first seizure after they are 4 years old. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:818–819)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals detected through both passive and active surveillance in the US.


204 companion animals (109 cats, 95 dogs) across 33 states with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections between March 2020 and December 2021.


Public health officials, animal health officials, and academic researchers investigating zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 transmission events reported clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic information through a standardized One Health surveillance process developed by the CDC and partners.


Among dogs and cats identified through passive surveillance, 94% (n = 87) had reported exposure to a person with COVID-19 before infection. Clinical signs of illness were present in 74% of pets identified through passive surveillance and 27% of pets identified through active surveillance. Duration of illness in pets averaged 15 days in cats and 12 days in dogs. The average time between human and pet onset of illness was 10 days. Viral nucleic acid was first detected at 3 days after exposure in both cats and dogs. Antibodies were detected starting 5 days after exposure, and titers were highest at 9 days in cats and 14 days in dogs.


Results of the present study supported that cats and dogs primarily become infected with SARS-CoV-2 following exposure to a person with COVID-19, most often their owners. Case investigation and surveillance that include both people and animals are necessary to understand transmission dynamics and viral evolution of zoonotic diseases like SARS-CoV-2.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association