Objective—To develop a mathematical model to simulate infection dynamics of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle herds in the United States and predict efficacy of the current national control strategy for tuberculosis in cattle.
Design—Stochastic simulation model.
Sample—Theoretical cattle herds in the United States.
Procedures—A model of within-herd M bovis transmission dynamics following introduction of 1 latently infected cow was developed. Frequency- and density-dependent transmission modes and 3 tuberculin test–based culling strategies (no test-based culling, constant [annual] testing with test-based culling, and the current strategy of slaughterhouse detection–based testing and culling) were investigated. Results were evaluated for 3 herd sizes over a 10-year period and validated via simulation of known outbreaks of M bovis infection.
Results—On the basis of 1,000 simulations (1,000 herds each) at replacement rates typical for dairy cattle (0.33/y), median time to detection of M bovis infection in medium-sized herds (276 adult cattle) via slaughterhouse surveillance was 27 months after introduction, and 58% of these herds would spontaneously clear the infection prior to that time. Sixty-two percent of medium-sized herds without intervention and 99% of those managed with constant test–based culling were predicted to clear infection < 10 years after introduction. The model predicted observed outbreaks best for frequency-dependent transmission, and probability of clearance was most sensitive to replacement rate.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although modeling indicated the current national control strategy was sufficient for elimination of M bovis infection from dairy herds after detection, slaughterhouse surveillance was not sufficient to detect M bovis infection in all herds and resulted in subjectively delayed detection, compared with the constant testing method. Further research is required to economically optimize this strategy.
Objective—To determine the effects of diet-induced weight gain on glucose and insulin dynamics and plasma hormone and lipid concentrations in horses.
Animals—13 adult geldings.
Procedures—Horses were fed 200% of their digestible energy requirements for maintenance for 16 weeks to induce weight gain. Frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests were performed before and after weight gain to evaluate glucose and insulin dynamics. Adiposity (assessed via condition scoring, morphometric measurements, and subcutaneous fat depth) and plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and leptin were measured on a weekly or biweekly basis.
Results—Mean ± SD body weight increased by 20% from 440 ± 44 kg to 526 ± 53 kg, and body condition score (scale, 1 to 9) increased from 6 ± 1to8 ± 1. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were similar before and after weight gain. Leptin and insulin concentrations increased with weight gain. Mean ± SD insulin sensitivity decreased by 71 ± 28%, accompanied by a 408 ± 201% increase in acute insulin response to glucose, which resulted in similar disposition index before and after weight gain.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diet-induced weight gain in horses occurred concurrently with decreased insulin sensitivity that was effectively compensated for by an increase in insulin secretory response. Obesity resulted in hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, compared with baseline values, but no changes in lipid concentrations were apparent. Preventing obesity is a potential strategy to help avoid insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia in horses.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of biofilm
formation under long-term cell culture conditions in
serum samples of dairy cattle, goats, cats, and dogs,
and to determine whether there is an association
between nanobacteria and biofilm formation.
Sample Population—Serum samples of clinically
normal animals (313 dairy cattle, 48 goats, 140 dogs,
and 44 cats) and animals with various medical conditions
(60 dogs and 116 cats).
Procedure—Serum was incubated under cell culture
conditions and observed for biofilm formation by use
of light microscopy, electron microscopy, and spectroscopy.
A polymerase chain reaction assay was
developed to identify 16S rRNA gene sequences of
Results—Biofilm formation developed in serum samples
of 304 of 313 (97%) cattle, 44 of 48 (92%) goats,
44 of 44 (100%) cats, and 126 of 140 (90%) dogs.
Prevalence of serum samples with positive results for
biofilm formation was not significantly different
between cats or dogs with and without medical conditions
associated with pathologic extraskeletal calcification
processes. Scanning electron microscopy and
spectroscopy of biofilm samples revealed small coccoid
particles consisting mainly of calcium and phosphate.
Polymerase chain reaction assay failed to
amplify sequences of nanobacteria.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under longterm
cell culture conditions, biofilm made up of aggregates
of calcium and phosphate crystals does form in
serum samples of clinically normal dairy cattle, goats,
cats, and dogs. Disease, however, does not predispose
to biofilm formation in serum samples of dogs
and cats. Our findings did not support the existence
of nanobacteria in serum samples of cattle, goats,
cats, and dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:176–182)
To compare glucose concentrations in peripheral venous and capillary blood samples collected from dogs before and after consumption of a meal and measured with a veterinary-specific portable blood glucose meter (PBGM).
12 dogs (96 blood samples).
A veterinary-specific PBGM was used to measure blood glucose concentrations. Glucose concentrations in capillary blood samples obtained from the carpal pad, medial aspect of a pinna, and oral mucosa were compared with glucose concentrations in blood samples obtained from a lateral saphenous vein. Samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours and again 2 hours after consumption of a meal.
Location of capillary blood collection had a significant effect on glucose concentrations measured with the PBGM. Glucose concentration in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna did not differ significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples, whereas glucose concentrations in blood samples collected from the carpal pad and oral mucosa differed significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples. There was no significant difference between preprandial and postprandial blood glucose concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Glucose concentrations in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna of dogs better reflected glucose concentrations in venous blood than concentrations measured in capillary blood collected from the carpal pad or oral mucosa.