Objective—To determine whether dogs with renal failure have higher serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations than healthy dogs.
Animals—31 dogs with renal failure and 51 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Serum concentrations of creatinine and cardiac troponin I, urine specific gravity, and systolic arterial blood pressure were measured for all dogs. Dogs underwent a standardized physical examination, and any dog with evidence of cardiovascular disease or other nonrenal disease was excluded from final analyses. Dogs were considered to be in renal failure when the serum creatinine concentration was ≥ 3.0 mg/dL, urine specific gravity was between 1.007 and 1.030, and renal failure had been clinically diagnosed.
Results—Dogs with renal failure had significantly higher serum cTnI concentrations (median, 0.35 ng/mL) than did healthy dogs (0.20 ng/mL). The renal failure group also had a significantly higher median systolic blood pressure (156 mm Hg) than did healthy dogs (138 mm Hg), although serum cTnI concentration was not correlated with systolic blood pressure in dogs with renal failure. There was no significant difference in age between dogs with renal failure and healthy dogs, but dogs with renal failure had significantly higher serum creatinine concentration and lower urine specific gravity.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although dogs with renal failure did not have overt clinical signs of cardiac disease, they had high serum cTnI concentrations, which may have been associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease. The cause of the high serum cTnI concentration in these dogs requires additional investigation.
Objective—To evaluate and compare circulating concentrations of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), insulin, and glucose in nondiabetic cats classified by body condition score (BCS) and in cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.
Procedures—Cats were examined and BCSs were assessed on a scale of 1 to 9. After food was withheld for 12 hours, blood was collected and plasma concentrations of IAPP and serum concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured. Differences in these values were evaluated among nondiabetic cats grouped according to BCS and in diabetic cats grouped as ketoacidotic or nonketoacidotic on the basis of clinicopathologic findings. Correlations were determined among variables.
Results—In nondiabetic cats, BCS was significantly and positively correlated with circulating IAPP and insulin concentrations. Mean plasma IAPP concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 7, and mean serum insulin concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 8. Serum glucose concentrations were not significantly different among nondiabetic cats. Mean IAPP concentrations were similar between nonketoacidotic diabetic cats and nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 8 or 9. Mean IAPP concentrations were significantly reduced in ketoacidotic diabetic cats, compared with those of nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 6 through 8 and of nonketoacidotic diabetic cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that increased BCS (a measure of obesity) is associated with increased circulating concentrations of IAPP and insulin in nondiabetic cats.
Objective—To determine the effects of hypothyroidism on insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and concentrations of hormones counter-regulatory to insulin in dogs.
Animals—8 anestrous mixed-breed bitches with experimentally induced hypothyroidism and 8 euthyroid control dogs.
Procedures—The insulin-modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test and minimal model analysis were used to determine basal plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, acute insulin response to glucose, insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and disposition index. Growth hormone response was assessed by stimulation and suppression tests. Additionally, basal serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations and urine cortisol-to-creatinine concentration ratios were measured and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed to evaluate body composition.
Results—Insulin sensitivity was lower in the hypothyroid group than in the euthyroid group, whereas acute insulin response to glucose was higher. Glucose effectiveness and disposition index were not different between groups. Basal serum GH and IGF-1 concentrations as well as abdominal fat content were high in hypothyroid dogs, but urine cortisol-to-creatinine concentration ratios were unchanged.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypothyroidism appeared to negatively affect glucose homeostasis by inducing insulin resistance, but overall glucose tolerance was maintained by increased insulin secretion in hypothyroid dogs. Possible factors affecting insulin sensitivity are high serum GH and IGF-1 concentrations and an increase in abdominal fat. In dogs with diseases involving impaired insulin secretion such as diabetes mellitus, concurrent hypothyroidism can have important clinical implications.