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  • Author or Editor: Rebecca G. Newman x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes for dogs following marginal tumor excision and intralesional placement of cisplatin-impregnated beads for the treatment of cutaneous or subcutaneous soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) and assess local toxic effects of cisplatin-impregnated beads in these patients.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 62 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs with STSs treated with marginal excision and intralesional placement of cisplatin-impregnated beads. Patient signalment; tumor location, type, and grade; dates of tumor resection and bead placement; number of beads placed; and concurrent treatments were recorded. Data regarding toxicosis at the bead site (up to the time of suture removal) and tumor recurrence were collected; variables of interest were evaluated for associations with these outcomes, and systemic adverse effects (if any) were recorded.

RESULTS 24 of 51 (47%) evaluated dogs had toxicosis at bead placement sites (classified as mild [n = 12] or moderate [10] in most). Fifteen of 51 (29%) tumors recurred. Median disease-free interval was not reached for dogs with grade 1 and 2 STSs, whereas that for dogs with grade 3 STSs was 148 days. Disease-free survival rates of dogs with grade 1 and 2 tumors at 1, 2, and 3 years were 88%, 75%, and 64%, respectively. One dog was treated for presumptive systemic toxicosis but recovered with medical treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cisplatin-impregnated beads were generally well tolerated; good results were achieved for dogs with grade 1 or 2 STSs. Prospective, controlled studies are needed to determine efficacy of this treatment for preventing recurrence of marginally excised STSs in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 19-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of signs of urinary tract obstruction.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination findings were consistent with urethral obstruction, and a mass could be palpated in the region of the bladder neck. Abdominal ultrasonography and thoracic radiography revealed a mass in the trigone of the urinary bladder and a solitary mass in the left caudal lung lobe. Cytologic examination of the urine sediment, samples obtained by means of traumatic urethral catheterization, and fine-needle aspirates of the bladder mass did not result in a diagnosis.

Treatment and Outcome—A balloon-expandable metallic stent was placed in the proximal portion of the urethra to relieve the malignant obstruction. After stent placement, the cat had signs of urinary incontinence and detrusor atony, both of which resolved with medical treatment. The cat was euthanized 1 month after stent placement because of progressive azotemia. Histologic examination of necropsy samples revealed grade III urothelial carcinoma and papillary pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that stent placement may be a viable palliative treatment in cats with malignant urinary obstruction.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To isolate and characterize the cDNA sequence of canine stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-3), screen various naturally developing primary tumors of dogs, and assess the effect of stromelysin-1 on survival of dogs with cancer.

Sample Population—3 canine cell lines and biopsy specimens of primary tumors collected from 54 dogs.

Procedure—3 canine cell lines and biopsy specimens of primary tumors collected from 54 dogs at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital were used in the study. Primer sets based on human stromelysin-1 and consensus sequences were designed for expression, screening, and isolation. Two additional primer sets were designed for screening. Samples were assayed at least in duplicate. Data were analyzed for differences in expression of stromelysin-1 on the basis of sex, age, metastasis, malignant versus nonmalignant tissue origin, and duration of patient survival.

Results—A 1,479-bp cDNA nucleotide sequence was amplified from established canine cell lines. The open reading frame encoded a protein consisting of 478 amino acids. This sequence was 70% to 88% homologous with stromelysin-1 of other species at the amino acid level. Fifty-four samples were screened for stromelysin-1. Of these, 34 (63%) had positive results and 20 (37%) had negative results for expression. Stromelysin-1 and metastasis were associated with a poor prognosis for survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Stromelysin-1 is a potential activator of other members of the MMP family. Additional studies are needed to investigate the relationship between stromelysin-1 production and aggressive biological behavior of tumors in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1526–1535)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the mean telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues.

Sample Population—57 solid-tissue tumor specimens collected from client-owned dogs, 40 samples of normal tissue collected from 12 clinically normal dogs, and blood samples collected from 4 healthy blood donor dogs.

Procedures—Tumor specimens were collected from client-owned dogs during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, whereas 40 normal tissue samples were collected from 12 control dogs. Telomere restriction fragment length was determined by use of an assay kit. A histologic diagnosis was provided for each tumor by personnel at the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Illinois.

Results—Mean of the mean TRF length for 44 normal samples was 19.0 kilobases (kb; range, 15.4 to 21.4 kb), and the mean of the mean TRF length for 57 malignant tumors was 19.0 kb (range, 12.9 to 23.5 kb). Although the mean of the mean TRF length for tumors and normal tissues was identical, tumor samples had more variability in TRF length.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Telomerase, which represents the main mechanism by which cancer cells achieve immortality, is an attractive therapeutic target. The ability to measure telomere length is crucial to monitoring the efficacy of telomerase inhibition. In contrast to many other mammalian species, the length of canine telomeres and the rate of telomeric DNA loss are similar to those reported in humans, making dogs a compelling choice for use in the study of human antitelomerase strategies.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare results of treatment with temozolomide or dacarbazine, in combination with an anthracycline, in dogs with relapsed or refractory lymphoma.

Design—Nonrandomized, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—63 dogs with relapsed or refractory lymphoma.

Procedures—Chemotherapy was administered in 21-day cycles. A combination of temozolomide and an anthracycline (doxorubicin or dactinomycin) was administered to 21 dogs and a combination of dacarbazine and an anthracycline was administered to 42 dogs. Efficacy and toxicoses were assessed.

Results—Thirteen of the 18 (72%) dogs treated with the temozolomide-anthracycline combination and 25 of the 35 (71%) dogs treated with the dacarbazine-anthracycline combination had a complete or partial response. Median duration of response to rescue chemotherapy was 40 days (range, 0 to 217 days) for dogs in the temozolomide group and 50 days (range, 0 to 587 days) for dogs in the dacarbazine group. The incidence of high-grade hematologic toxicoses was significantly higher among dogs in the dacarbazine group than among dogs in the temozolomide group, but the incidence of gastrointestinal tract toxicoses was not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in regard to proportion of dogs with a complete or partial response, duration of response to rescue chemotherapy, survival time following rescue chemotherapy, or overall survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both combinations had promise in the treatment of dogs with relapsed or refractory lymphoma, although administration of temozolomide was more convenient than administration of dacarbazine and caused fewer hematologic toxicoses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association