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- Author or Editor: Rebecca E. Ruby x
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Objective—To assess data regarding clinical features, clinicopathologic and blood gas variables, and outcome from horse and mule foals with confirmed neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—17 horse and 1 mule foals.
Procedure—Medical records of foals (< 14 days old) with NI were reviewed. Information collected included signalment; clinical examination findings; results of hematologic, serum and plasma biochemical, and venous blood gas analyses and urinalysis; treatments; and outcome.
Results—Data from 17 horse foals and 1 mule foal with NI (mean age, 71 hours) were evaluated. Many foals had high serum indirect and direct bilirubin concentrations and sorbitol dehydrogenase activity. Whole blood immunoglobulin concentrations were < 400 mg/dL in 4 of 15 foals. Fresh whole blood transfusions were administered to 10 of 18 foals. Among the blood factors implicated in 11 foals, one (Dg) had not previously been associated with NI. Of 10 foals that received blood transfusions, 7 had significant improvements in Hct and hemoglobin concentration and 2 had significant improvements in central venous oxygen tension. Fifteen foals survived to discharge.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that blood factor Dg may be associated with NI in foals. Liver disease may be concurrent with NI in foals, and NI can develop in foals with inadequate passive transfer of colostral antibodies. Whole blood transfusions were successful at increasing oxygencarrying capacity and improving peripheral tissue oxygenation in NI-affected foals. With appropriate treatment, the prognosis for foals with NI is good. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1276–1283)
Objective—To evaluate selected hemodynamic, blood gas, and biochemical responses to mild to moderate acute blood loss in standing, awake horses.
Animals—7 healthy mares.
Procedures—Each horse was restrained in standing stocks, and its head was maintained in a neutral position; sedatives and tranquilizers were not administered. During a 1-hour period, blood was collected into collection bags by use of a suction pump. The rate of blood collection was approximately 16 mL/kg/h (7.3 mL/lb/h). Thirty minutes after blood collection, the blood was readministered at the same rate. Central venous pressure (CVP), central venous blood gas, blood lactate concentration, and heart rate were measured at baseline (after placement of catheters), after removal of blood, and after readministration of blood.
Results—In response to blood loss, CVP decreased and blood lactate concentration increased significantly, compared with baseline values; heart rate and results of central venous blood gas analysis did not change significantly. After readministration of blood, CVP returned to baseline value and blood lactate concentration approached baseline value.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Changes in CVP and blood lactate concentration appear to be early indicators of hypovolemia in horses, which may represent acute blood loss in trauma patients; these variables should be monitored to assess the potential need for blood transfusions. These variables can be used to monitor responses of horses to blood transfusions when whole blood is administered as the replacement fluid.
Objective—To apply the principle of sodium dilution to calculate the changes in the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume (ECFV) and intracellular fluid volume (ICFV) that occur during dehydration and rehydration in horses.
Animals—8 healthy horses of various breeds.
Procedures—Horses were dehydrated over 4 hours by withholding water and administering furosemide. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IV during the next 2 hours (20 mL/kg/h; total 40 mL/kg). Horses were monitored for an additional hour following IV fluid administration. Initial ECFV was determined by use of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serum sodium concentration was used to calculate total ECF sodium content. Sodium and fluid volume losses were monitored and calculated throughout the study and used to estimate changes in ECFV and ICFV during fluid balance alterations.
Results—Changes during dehydration and rehydration primarily occurred in the ECFV. The sodium dilution principle estimated an overexpansion of the ECFV beyond the volume of fluid administered, indicating a small contraction of the ICFV in response to fluid administration. Serum and urinary electrolyte changes were recorded and were consistent with those of previous reports.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The sodium dilution principle provided a simple method that can be used to estimate the changes in ECFV and ICFV that occur during fluid administration. Results suggested an overexpansion of the ECFV in response to IV saline solution administration. The sodium dilution principle requires further validation in healthy and clinically ill horses, which could provide clinical applications similar to those in other species.